[Psychology 1000] - Final Exam Guide - Ultimate 224 pages long Study Guide!

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Published on 1 Dec 2016
School
Western University
Department
Psychology
Course
Psychology 1000
Professor
Western
Psychology 1000
FINAL EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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Chapter 1:
Psychology: The Science of Behaviour
- Psychology is the scientific study of behavior and the factors that influence it
- To understand diverse forms of behavior, psychologists take into account biological, individual,
and environmental factors
- Psychologists are concerned with enormous range of questions: “how do we remember, think,
and reason? Or, what makes us fall in love?”
- Good scientists ask these questions when told about a new fact: “what are you asking me to
believe? Or, how do you know?”
Research Methods
- Psychologists employ a variety of research methods for developing and testing theories about
behavior and its causes
-Basic Research: quest for knowledge purely for its own sake; describe how people behave and
identify the factors that influence or cause a particular type of behavior
-Applied Research: designed to solve specific practical problems; uses principles discovered
through basic research
Robbers Cave (Sherif et al., 1961)
- Basic research conducted at a summer camp
- Boys were divided into two groups (Eagles and Rattlers)
- Hostility developed when two groups engaged in competitive activities; there were even signs of
discrimination
- Hostility reduced when two groups were forced to cooperate with each other to accomplish
goals (repairing water supply system, towing a truck, etc)
- The study shows that conflict between groups can be reduced by making the groups dependent
upon one another
Jigsaw Program (Aronson et al., 1978)
- Application of Robbers Cave techniques (form of applied research)
- Requires children to cooperate with one another rather than compete against each other
- Involves many multi-ethnic groups that are required to prepare for an upcoming test
- Only one child has access to certain information
- In order to do well on the test, children are forced to work together and piece every information
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- As a result, prejudice decreases, self-esteem increases, etc
- This is an example of how knowledge acquired from basic research can be applied to solve
practical problems
Goals of Psychology
1. To describe how people and other animals behave
2. To explain and understand the causes of these behaviors
3. To predict how people and animals behave under certain conditions
4. To influence or control behavior through knowledge and control of its causes to enhance
human welfare
- If we understand the causes of a behavior and know when the causal factors are present or
absent, then we should be able to successfully predict when the behavior will occur
- Moreover, if we can control the causes, then we should be able to control the behavior
- Ultimate goal is to get the facts that are general for all humans
Psychological Perspectives
- Charles Whitman, seemingly intelligent and happy young man, shot and killed 16 people
- Some stated that tumor on his brain caused him to kill those people (biological)
- Some argued that his ‘overwhelmingly violent impulses’ led him to kill (psychological)
- Some argued that he was already violent because his father was very abusive (environmental)
- Therefore, to understand psychology, it is important to view a concept from multiple
perspectives
- Perspectives are vantage points for analyzing behavior and its biological, psychological, and
environmental causes
- Understanding things from different perspectives can enrich our thinking
- There are six perspectives:
Biological
Cognitive
Psychodynamic
Behavioral
Humanistic
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Document Summary

Psychology is the scientific study of behavior and the factors that influence it. To understand diverse forms of behavior, psychologists take into account biological, individual, and environmental factors. Psychologists employ a variety of research methods for developing and testing theories about behavior and its causes. Basic research: quest for knowledge purely for its own sake; describe how people behave and identify the factors that influence or cause a particular type of behavior. Applied research: designed to solve specific practical problems; uses principles discovered through basic research. Boys were divided into two groups (eagles and rattlers) Hostility developed when two groups engaged in competitive activities; there were even signs of discrimination. Hostility reduced when two groups were forced to cooperate with each other to accomplish goals (repairing water supply system, towing a truck, etc) The study shows that conflict between groups can be reduced by making the groups dependent upon one another. Application of robbers cave techniques (form of applied research)