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[Psychology 1000] - Final Exam Guide - Ultimate 167 pages long Study Guide!


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYCH 1000
Professor
Laura Fazakas- De Hoog
Study Guide
Final

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Western
Psychology 1000
FINAL EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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Lecture #1
September 11, 2015
9:36 AM
Chapter 1 - Psychology: The Study of Behaviour
What is Psychology?
The Scientific study of the brain, the mind, consciousness, thinking, language and memory,
emotions, perception, types of behaviour, normal vs. abnormal, why one acts differently when
alone and in a group.
In short, psychology is the scientific study of behavior and the mind.
Behavior = actions and responses that we can observe
Mind = internal thoughts and processes
Psyche: soul, spirit, self, life
-ology: branch of knowledge
Psychology – Scientific study of behaviour (actions, thoughts, feelings, reactions)
Goals of psychology are to describe, understand, predict, and control.
Understanding, predicting and control are linked in the following manner: If we understand the
causes of a behaviour and know when the causal factors are present or absent, then we should be
able to successfully predict when the behavior will occur.
Roots of Psychology
Two Main Influences:
Natural Science - Progress in understanding the nervous system and senses etc.
Philosophy – Ideas about how knowledge can be acquired
Philosophical Perspectives
Nativism – Knowledge is innate (ie. Inherited)
Focus on hereditary factors
NATURE
Empiricism - knowledge gained through observation and our senses
Experiences
Study only what you can observe
NURTURE
Rationalism – Knowledge is gained through logic and reasoning
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Monism - the philosophical position that mental events are reducible to physical events in the
brain, so the "mind" and body are one and the same
Thomas Hobbes
Mind-body Dualism - the philosophical position that the mind is a nonphysical entity that is not
subject to physical laws and cannot be reduced to physical processes; body and mind are separate
entities
Rene Descartes
History of Studying Behaviour
Philosophical Influence
Aristotle
Empiricism is born
Environment and upbringing shape cognitive ability
John Locke
Nothing can exist within the intellect that did not have its origins in senses
Empiricism
“Tabula Rasa” - blank tablet upon which experiences are written
Natural Science
Phrenology (GALL)
Bumps in the skull indicate overdeveloped brain regions
Cranioscopy – Can understand someone’s personality through these bumps
Localized brain regions for behaviour
(Flourens)
Entire brain (not located areas) worked in synchrony to produce general functions
Charles Darwin
Natural Selection
Evolution implied the mind was not a spiritual entity
Survival of the fittest
Nothing special about humans (humans can be studied scientifically)
Ivan Sechenov
Physiologist
Believed that all complex behaviour can be explained by reflexes
The ideas of applying the methods of science to the study of human behaviour – Modern
Psychology
Cognitive Psychology is Born
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