Psychology 1000 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Myelin, Confounding, Resting Potential

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CHAPTER 1 STUDY QUESTIONS
1. Define “psychology”
2. What is the difference between basic and applied research?
3. What are the main goals of psychology?
THEORETICAL PERSPECTIVES
1. Give a brief description of how each of the following major perspectives in
Psychology would view human behavior.
A. Biological perspective
Evolutionary perspective
B. Cognitive perspective
Functionalism
Structuralism
Modern cognitive science
C. Social Constructivism perspective
B. Psychodynamic perspective
C. Behavioral perspective
D. Humanistic perspective
E. Sociocultural perspective
2. What are some of the strengths or limitations of these theories?
3. Discuss the nature/nature controversy.
4. How would you use the integrated Biopsychosocial (i.e.
biological/psychological/environmental) approach to explain the development
of depression?
5. What are some of the major themes in Psychology?
6. What are some of the major specialty areas within psychology?
7. In what types of settings do psychologists work?
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CHAPTER 2 STUDY QUESTIONS
SCIENTIFIC PRINCIPLES IN PSYCHOLGY
1. List three scientific attitudes
2. What is a hypothesis? How is this different from a theory?
3. What are the four steps in gathering scientific evidence?
4. Why are some of the problems with hindsight understanding?
5. Define the following terms/concepts:
Law of parsimony
Variable
Operational definition
Social dersirability bias
Descriptive research
METHODS OF RESEARCH
1. Describe each of the following research methods. What are some of the
strengths and limitations of each method?
Case study method
Naturalistic observation
Survey research
Correlational research
experiment
2. What is a correlation coefficient? How would you calculate a correlation
coefficient? What does it mean if 2 variables are positively correlated?
Negatively correlated?
3. What conclusions can we draw based on correlation evidence?
4. Describe the components of an experiment. What is the logic behind this type
of research design?
5. What is the difference between a dependent and an independent variable?
6. What is the purpose for using a control group?
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THREATS TO VALIDITY OF RESEARCH
1. Define internal validity. What are some of the potential threats to internal
validity?
2. What is a confounding variable?
3. Describe the concept of placebo effect.
4. What is meant by “experimenter expectancy effect”? How can these be
eliminated or controlled in research?
5. What is external validity?
ETHICAL PRINCIPLES IN RESEARCH
1. What are some of the ethical principles that psychologists are expected to
follow during research and practice?
2. What is involved in informed consent?
3. What are the ethical standards in animal research?
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