Psychology 1000 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Experimental Psychology, Job Satisfaction, Confounding

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1. How many research credits do you need to obtain by the end of the year?
A) 1
B) 100
C) 6
D) 2500
E) research credits?
2. Which of the following statements comparing the behavioral and psychodynamic
perspectives is most accurate?
A) though they are rather different on the surface, the perspectives are similar in that they both
place a strong emphasis on free will and personal choice
B) the behavioral approach emphasizes free will and personal choice while the psychodynamic
approach does not
C) the behavioral approach emphasizes internal causes while the psychodynamic approach
places more emphasis on external causes
D) the behavioral approach emphasizes external causes while the psychodynamic approach
places more emphasis on internal causes
E) A & C are correct
3. Professor Abel views the causes of schizophrenia as strictly biological, while Professor Worth sees the
causes as completely environmental. Both are wrong. Why?
A) the causes of abnormal behaviour are best described at the psychological level
B) the causes of abnormal behaviour are best described in terms of psychodynamic principles
C) interaction must be consideredboth levels are likely involved and each influence
the other
D) there are no known explanations for schizophrenia.
E) B & D are correct
4. Dr. Mitchell is interested in the aggressive behaviour of pigeons. So, he goes to the park and records
how many times one pigeon “attacks” another. This aspect of Dr. Mitchell’s research is MOST consistent
with which goal of psychology?
A) description
B) understanding
C) prediction
D) control
E) usefulness
5. As you listen to one of your psychology professors talking to a colleague, she uses the words
“childhood sexuality” and “repression” when speaking about memory. Most likely, she is speaking
about which psychological perspective?
A) social constructivism
B) psychodynamic
C) humanistic
D) neuroscience
E) sociobiology
6. You overhear two psychologists talking about a patient. Dr. A insists that the patient’s problem is the
result of turning away from self actualization. Dr. B says no, it is the result of collectivism. Most likely
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A) Dr. A is a behaviourist; Dr. B is humanist
B) Dr. A follows the cognitive perspective; Dr. B is a structuralist
C) Dr. A is a sociobiologist; Dr. B is a functionalist
D) Dr. A follows the humanistic perspective; Dr. B follows the sociocultural perspective
E) Dr. A is a cognitive behaviourist; Dr. B follows the behavioural perspective
7. Which of the following factors has NOT been suggested as a cause of depression?
A) disruption in the sleep/wakefulness cycle
B) self-blame for negative events
C) an environment with far too many rewards
D) a significant loss (e.g., of a parent) early in life
E) all of the above have been suggested as causes of depression
8. Dr. Chan is interested in the study of basic processes in learning and memory. He conducts his
research in a laboratory. Most likely, Dr. Chan is
A) a clinical psychologist
B) an educational psychologist
C) a social psychologist
D) a neuroscientist
E) an experimental psychologist
9. Your friend is a bit unsure about her answers to a number of the questions on this exam and has
asked you for your opinion. She wants to know what she should do in the future. According to the text,
you would recommend all of the following EXCEPT
A) you can rule out some alternatives immediately. Eliminate them and choose from the rest
B) try to answer the questions before you look at the alternatives
C) answer the questions you know first, then come back to the more difficult ones
D) do not change your answersyour first guess is likely to be correct
E) check your progress from time to time and make sure that you are on track
10. Which of the following statements would likely have been made by a sociobiologist?
A) reality is a social construction and little is shared across cultures
B) an individual’s social behaviour is determined by external rewards
C) much our behaviour is unknown to our conscious mindwe are driven by unconscious
impulses and desires
D) social behaviours that increase our ability to pass on our genes will be more likely to be
represented in future generations
E) all humans seek to self-actualize and grow
11. During dinner one evening, Arial mentions that she just read in a popular magazine that a particular
herbal substance improves memory. She’s very excited about trying this supplement in hopes that it
might improve her grades. Sitting across the table from her, Juan is skeptical. He begins to ask her about
such things as the nature of the evidence regarding the herb’s effectiveness and how big the memory
improvement effect is supposed to be. Juan’s behavior is most consistent with which of the following
concepts discussed in the text?
A) Gestalt psychology
B) functionalism
C) British empiricism
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D) critical thinking
E) A & C are both correct
12. You are listening to a psychologist describe his view of human nature. He uses terms like “free will”,
“choice” and the “search for meaning”. This illustrates which of the major perspectives on psychology?
A) humanistic
B) behavioural
C) cognitive
D) psychodynamic
E) socio-cultural
13. A limitation of Correlational research is that
A) the data do not permit cause and effect conclusions
B) the correlation coefficient only goes from -1.00 to +1.00
C) the data collected cannot be plotted
D) it only addresses questions that cannot be studied experimentally
E) it does not allow us to make predictions about the variables
14. A control group
A) must always be used in correlational research
B) is not exposed to the experimental treatment
C) cannot be used as a comparison to the experimental group
D) must be deceived into believing they are receiving treatment
E) all of the above
15. With respect to ethics and the use of deception in research
A) it should only be used when there is no other way to obtain natural, spontaneous responses
from participants
B) deception violates the principle of informed consent
C) the participant should be told the true purpose of the study when it is over
D) the benefits should clearly outweigh the ethical costs
E) all of the above
16. A good theory should
A) not follow the law of parsimony
B) be testable
C) produce predictions that are different and do not support findings of new research
D) be regarded as absolute truth
E) none of the above
17. A psychologist is studying the effects of orange juice on the prevention of colds. She has one group
drink a glass of orange juice every day for the month of December. A second group drinks a glass of
orange juice once a week during December, while a third group is not given any orange juice at all
during this time period. Previous medical histories were obtained for all the participants. In January,
she records how many colds each participant gets over the entire month. In this study, the independent
variable is
A) the severity of the colds in January
B) the number of colds each participant got in January
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