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[Psychology 1000] - Midterm Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam (36 pages long!)


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYCH 1000
Professor
Laura Fazakas- De Hoog
Study Guide
Midterm

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Western
Psychology 1000
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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Psych 1000 Nick. S
Chapters 9-13
-Language
-Psycholinguist
-Components of Language
-Noa Chosks
Transformation Grammar
-Humor
-Types of processing
-Speech segmentation
-Pragmatics
-The Brain and language
-Language Learning
-System of symbols and rules to generate infinite possible meanings
-Study of psychological aspects of language
-Grammar: Rules of how symbols can be combined
-Syntax: Rules that govern order of words
-Semanticisty: Convey meaning
Generatively: Finite symbols can be combined to an infinite number of messages
-Displacement: Allos us to ouiate thigs that are’t physially preset
(imaginary, past, future)
-Surface structure: symbols and their order
-Deep structure: Underlying meaning, semantics
-Phonological ambiguity: Confusion of sounds (knock knock jokes)
-Lexical ambiguity: double meaning (a baker kneads the dough)
-Syntactic ambiguity- confusion in structure (man eating salmon vs man-eating
salmon
-Semantic ambiguity- eaig all e a a. Okay you’re a a
-Bottom up processing: patterns syllables meaning
-Top down processing: interpreting things based on expectations (Readig the
ead store as The Bread “tore
-How do we know when words end?
We learn certain sequences are more likely to be at the end of words
Context also makes it easier to tell when words end
-Knowledge of the practical aspect of using language
Using language requires more than vocabulary and grammar
You must know not only what people are saying but what they mean and
want you to do
-Broas Area responsible for Speech
-Wernicke Area responsible for Comprehension
Women have language in both hemispheres, men have it in the left
If acquire language in early life, they use same neural area
If acquire language in later life, it gets its own neural network and use a
different part of the brain when in use
Even if you learn early and fluently, the inferior frontal gyrus goes off
when using second language, indicating more effort needed
-Infants vocalize (cry, babble) from the first moments of life- even dead infants:
Start to show phoneme discrimination by 2 months (PA vs BA)
-Babies are equally sensitive to phonemes from foreign languages- were hard
wired to acquire languages
-Language Acquisition Device (LAD): humans are born with an innate biological
mechanism that contains general grammar rules (nouns, verbs)
Huge electrical switchboard that is calibrated to your language
-Language is not considered to be a result of imitation and reinforcement (skinner)
Language Acquisition Support System: social environment that facilitates
language learning. Mutually supportive with LAD
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Psych 1000 Nick. S
Chapters 9-13
Linguistic Influences on
thinking:
-Thinking:
-Motherese: High pitch, slow rate, exaggerated tone mother use when talking to
babies. Easier to understand and infants and adults do it automatically
-One word speaker:
5-8 months of age- respond to parents words
10 to 20 months- talking begins
Early vocab very simple. No. 1 word it no
Vocab more likely include objects they can manipulate (ball vs ceiling)
Tend to under-generalize
-Two-word speaker:
-Around 2 years old-telegraphic speech
Vocabulary = several hundred words
Speech shows proper organization
Thro Ball ot Ball Thro
By 2 ½ years child moves beyond 2 words and sentences become more
complex
The 4 or 5 year old makes mistakes in tense
o E.g. Runned not ran
Child now overgeneralizes rules-Formal schooling takes over
-Bilingualism: Children mixing two languages when they learn is not an issue, they
can discriminate by age 2
Bilingual children have:
o Superior cognitive processing
o Better understanding even before they read
o Better symbolic understanding of the nature of print
o Perform better on attention inhibition tasks
-Critical Periods:
The white crowned sparrow must be exposed to an adult song between
day 7 and 60. If not they never learn how to sing
Humans must be exposed to language between 3 months to around
puberty (early teens) or they will not learn how to speak
Second Language Period:
o Easier to learn second language better while younger age but a
biological critical period debatable
-Linguistic relativity hypothesis: Language determines what we are capable of
thinking
Laguage doest deteie hat ou thik, it ifluees it
o Ex.- would a culture would fewer words for colors actually be less
able to tell colors apart?
Chinese language uses ten-one, ten-two instead of eleven and twelve so
children learn math easier in Asia countries
-Thought and language are closely related. Telling people to talk out loud can be
used to study thinking patterns (called directed thinking)
-Types of Thought:
Propositional thought: Inner speech
o Concepts- basic units of semantic memory (objects, abstractions,
activities)
o Some concepts are defined by prototypes (most typical members
of the class)
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