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Psychology 1000 Study Guide - Frontal Lobe, Parasympathetic Nervous System, Sympathetic Nervous System

Course Code
PSYCH 1000

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9/13/2011 7:55:00 AM
Psych reading
Pgs. 2-19
Psychology: scientific study of behaviour and the mind
Behaviour: actions and responses that we can directly observe
Mind: internal states and processes, such as thoughts and feeling that
cannot be seen directly and that must be inferred from observable,
measurable responses
Clinical psychology: the study and treatment of mental disorders
Cognitive psychology: the study of mental processes, especially from a
model that views the mind as an information processor
Biopsychology: focuses on the biological underpinnings of behaviour
Developmental psychology: human physical, psychological, and social
development across the lifespan.
Experimental psychology: basic processes like learning, sensory system,
perception, and motivational states
Industrial organizational psychology: examines peoples behaviour in the
Personality psychology: study of human personality
Social psychology: examine people‟s thoughts, feelings, and behaviour
pertaining to the social world
Structuralism: the analysis of the mind in terms of is basic elements
Functionalism: psychology should study the functions of consciousness
rather than its structure
Difference between the two: Consider your hands, a structuralist would try
to explain their movement by studying how muscles, tendons and bones
operate. A functionalist would ask why we had hands and how they help us
adapt to the environment.
Psychodynamic perspective: searches for the causes of behaviour within the
inner workings of our personality emphasizing the role of unconscious
Psychoanalysis: the analysis of internal and primarily unconscious
psychological forces
Behavioral perspective: focuses on the role of the external environment in
governing our actions
Behaviourism: a school of thought that emphasizes environmental control
of behaviour through learning

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Cognitive behaviourism: learning experiences and the environment affect
our behaviour by giving us the information we need to behave effectively
Humanistic perspective: emphasizes free will, personal growth, and the
attempt to find meaning in one‟s existence
Self-actualization: the reaching of one‟s individual potential
Positive psychology movement: emphasizes the study of human
strengths, fulfillment, and optimal living
Cognitive perspective: examines the nature of the mind and how mental
processes influence behaviour
Gestalt psychology: examined how the mind organizes elements of
experience into a unified or “whole” perception
Cognitive neuroscience: uses sophisticated electrical recording and brain-
imaging techniques to examine brain activity while people engage in
cognitive tasks
Sociocultural perspective: examines how the social environment and
cultural learning influence our behaviour, thoughts, and feelings.
Cultural psychology: explores how culture is transmitted to its members
and examines psychological similarities and differences among people from
diverse cultures.
Biological perspective: examines how brain processes and other bodily
functions regulate behaviour
Behavioural neuroscience: examines brain processes and other
physiological functions that underlie our behaviour, sensory experiences,
emotions, and thoughts.
Neurotransmitters: chemicals released by nerve cells that allow them to
communicate with one another
Behaviour genetics: the study of how behavioural tendencies are
influenced by genetic factors
Natural selection: if an inherited trait gives certain members an advantage
over others, these members will be more likely to survive and pass on these
characteristics to their offspring
Evolutionary psychology: seeks to explain how evolution shaped modern
human behaviour
Sociobiology: complex social behaviours are also built into the human
species as products of evolution

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Psychology‟s goals
to describe how people and other animals behave
to explain and understand the causes of these behaviours
to predict how people and animals will behave under certain conditions
to influence and control behaviour through knowledge and control of its
causes to enhance human welfare
The six major perspectives on human behaviour (pg 24)
Psychology‟s two earliest schools of thought
genetic factors usually involved
related to biochemical factors and sleep/wakefulness rhythms in the brain
may have experienced a loss or abuse during childhood
reaction to a non-rewarding environment
women are about twice as likely as men to feel depressed in Western nations
psychology is empirical (relies on observation rather than intuition)
our experience of the world is subjective
behaviour is determined by multiple causal factors
nature and nurture combine to shape our behaviour and influence each other
psychological capacities have evolved over time
cultural environments affect behavioural and mental processes
to understand behaviour we move between environmental, biological and
psychological reasoning
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