Psychology 1000 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Kwadukuza, Ejaculation, Placenta
23 views20 pages
Midterm Chapter Review (9-13)
Chapter 9: Language and Thinking
Humans are puny in relation to other animals but we can think, reason and
Mental Representations: include images, ideas, concepts, and principles.
Language: Consists of a system of symbols and rules for combining these symbols
in a way that can generate an infinite number of possible messages.
Psycholinguistics: The scientific study of the psychological aspects of
language. How people understand, produce, and acquire language.
Adaptive Functions of Language: time lags tell us that human though and behavior
depends on more than the physical structure of the brain, because although human
brain hasn’t evolved much over the past 50,000 years, human linguistics definitely
Properties of Language:
Language is symbolic and structured
o Grammar – set of rules that dictate how symbols can be combined in
order to create meaning – full units of conversation.
o Syntax – the rules that govern the order of words.
Language conveys meaning
o Semantics – the meaning of words and sentences.
Language is generative and permits displacement
o Generativity – means that the symbols of language can be combined to
generate an infinite number of messages that have novel meaning.
o Displacement – refers to the fact that language allows us to
communicate about events and objects that are not physically present.
The Structure of Language:
Surface and deep structure:
o Surface structure – to read, listen to, or produce a sentence. Its surface
structure consists of the symbols used and their order.
o Deep Structure – underlying means of symbols and their structure
The Hierarchical Structure od language:
o Phoneme – smallest unit of speech sound in a language that can signal
a difference in meaning.
o Morphemes – smallest units of meaning in a language. (log, ball ect.)
o Discourse – sentences are combine into paragraphs, articles, books
Understanding and Producing Language:
The role of bottom up processing: individual elements are analyzed and then
combine to create a unified perception.
o This is used when analyzing the building blocks that make up
The role of top down processing: sensory information is interpreted in light
of existing knowledge, concepts, ideas and expectations (bead bread ex)
o Speech Segmentation – perceiving when each word in a spoken
sentence begins and ends
Pragmatics: the social context of language.
o Pragmatics – the knowledge of the practical aspects of language.
Language Functions, the Brain, and Sex Differences
o Broca’s or Wernicke’s area damage creates aphasia a impairment in
speech comprehension/production that can be permanent or
Acquiring a First Language:
Biological Foundations – infants open to and language phonemes but then
discriminate to native language phonemes.
o Language Acquisition Device (LAD) – an innate biological mechanism
that contains the general grammatical rules (universal grammar)
common to all languages.
Social Learning Process: plays the central role in acquiring language.
o Language acquisition support system (LASS) – to represent the fatods
in the social environment that facilitate the leaning of language.
Developmental Timetable and Sensitive Periods: maturation of speech
mechanisms and experiential factors combine the influences, language
acquisition proceeds according to a developmental timeline common to all
Second language learned best when in early period of childhood.
o Mastery of syntax and grammar
French immersion students showed to outperform monolingual students in
Linguistic Influences on Thinking:
Linguistic relativity hypothesis: not only influnces but determines what we
are capable of thinking.
Thought, Brain and Mind:
Propositional thought –expresses propostional in the form of a verbal
sentence (ex. I’m hungry)
Imaginal Thought – consist of images that we see, hear or feel in out mind.
Motoric Thought – mental representation of motor movements, such as
throwing an object
Concepts and Propositions:
Proposition – most of out thinking is is this form, statements that express
Concepts – are basic units of semantic memory (mental categories in which
we place objects, activities, abstractions)
Prototypes – typical members of a class (vegetable broccoli)
Reasoning: helps us acquire knowledge, make decisions, and solve problems.
Deductive reasoning – top down, from general principles to a conclusion
about a specific case.
1. If all humans are mortal
2. And Socrates is a human
3. Then Socrates is mortal
Inductive Reasoning – reasons from bottom up, starting with specific facts
and trying to develop a general principal.
Stumbling Blocks in Reasoning:
o Distraction by irrelevant information
o Belief bias – tendency to abandon logical rules to favor personal
o Emotion and Framing
Framing –ideas structured in different ways
1. Understanding of framing the problem (initial understanding is a key step
forward in a successful solution)
2. Generating potential solutions
a. Determine which procedures and explanations will be considered.
b. Determine which solutions are consistent with the evidence that has
so far been observed. Rule out any solutions that do not fit evidence.
3. Testing solution
Mental set: tendency to use solutions that have worked in the
pasts – can result in a less effective solution.
4. Evaluating results
Humans are puny in relation to other animals but we can think, reason and problem solve. Mental representations: include images, ideas, concepts, and principles. Language: consists of a system of symbols and rules for combining these symbols in a way that can generate an infinite number of possible messages. Psycholinguistics: the scientific study of the psychological aspects of language. Adaptive functions of language: time lags tell us that human though and behavior depends on more than the physical structure of the brain, because although human brain hasn"t evolved much over the past 50,000 years, human linguistics definitely has. Language is symbolic and structured: grammar set of rules that dictate how symbols can be combined in order to create meaning full units of conversation, syntax the rules that govern the order of words. Language conveys meaning: semantics the meaning of words and sentences. Surface and deep structure: surface structure to read, listen to, or produce a sentence.