Psychology 1000 Study Guide - Drive Theory, Neuropeptide Y, Leptin

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Published on 16 Apr 2013
Western University
Psychology 1000
Motivation and Emotion
Perspectives on Motivation
Instinct Theory and Evolutionary Psychology
-instinct: an inherited predisposition to behave in a specific and predictable way when
exposed to a particular stimulus
-have a genetic basis and do not depend on learning
-instinct theory is that instincts motivate much of our behaviour
-evolutionary psychologists propose that many motives have evolutionary
-so to understand motivation we have to look at the adaptive significance of
-motivational tendencies tat had adaptive significance were more likely to be
passed from one generation to he next, eventually evolving into genetically
based predispositions to act in certain ways
Homeostasis and Drive Theory
-homeostasis: state of internal physiological equilibrium that the body strives to maintain
-requires sensory mechanism for detecting changes in the internal environment, a
response system that can restore equilibrium and a control centre that receives
information from the sensors and activates the response system
-according to drive theory of motivation, disruptions to the homeostasis produce drives,
states of internal tension that motivates an organism to behave in ways that reduce this
-less influential
-ppl behave in ways that seem to increase rather than reduce states of arousal
-eg. diets
Incentive and Expectancy Theories
-drives= internal factors
-incentives: environmental stimuli that “pull” an organism toward a goal
-eg. good grades an incentive for students to study
-modern incentive theory
-pull of external stimuli and how stimuli with high incentive value can motivate
behaviour, even in the absence of biological need
-eg. finishing dinner so no longer hungry but eat dessert
-expectancy x value theory (simple expectancy theory)
-cognitive perspective
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-goal directed behaviour is jointly determined by two factors: the strength of a
person’s expectation that particular behaviours will lead to a goal and the value
the individual places on that goal (incentive value)
-therefore motivation= expectancy x incentive value
-eg. james, allison and matthew all in same calc class but james studies hard to
get an A and allison and matthew are fine to pass with a C
-james has expectation that working hard will get an A and values that A
-Allison has the same expectation but does not value the As
-Matthew values an A but believes that it is so hard he does not think
studying hard will help him achieve that so he doesn’t even bother
-extrinsic motivation: performing an activity to obtain an external reward or avoid
-reading a textbook for class
-intrinsic motivation: performing an activity for its own sake (you find it enjoyable or
-reading a novel for fun
-overjustification hypothesis
-giving people extrinsic rewards to perform activities that they intrinsically enoy
may “overjustify” that behaviour and reduce intrinsic motivation
-it will turn rewards from play into work and ti will be difficult to return to play if
those rewards are no longer available
-eg. making jewelry for fun then selling it will cause a decrease in intrinsic
Psychodynamic and Humanistic Theories
-psychodynamic theories emphasize that along with conscious mental processes,
unconscious motives and tensions guide how we act and feel
-humanistic viewpoint: we strive for personal growth
-need hierarchy a progression of need containing deficiency needs at the bottom
and growth needs at the top
-once our basic physiological needs are satisfied, we focus on our needs
for safety and security, and then after those we go to the next level
-self-actualization represents the need to fulfill our potential and it is the ultimate
human motive
-newer theory of motivation is self-determination theory
-focuses on three fundamental psychological needs:
-competence (need to master new challenges and perfect skills)
-autonomy is self determination and is satisfied when people experience
their actions as a result of free choice without interference
-relatedness (our desire to form meaningful bonds with others
-if you fulfill all three you are very happy, if not you have consequences on your
-has been strongly supported by research
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Hunger and Weight Regulation
The Physiology of Hunger
-metabolism is the body’s rate of energy utilization
-hunger is not linked to immediate energy needs as it is combined to other signals to
regulate food intake
-homeostatic mechanisms are designed to prevent from running low on energy
-it is believed that there is a set point around which body weight is regulated
-homeostatic mechanisms will return us close to our original weight
-some people believe that it is that homeostatic mechanisms make it harder to
keep gaining or losing weight but do not necessarily return us to our original
Signals that Start and Terminate a Meal
-hunger do not depend on the stomach
-sensors in te hypothalamus and liver monitor blood glucose concentrations and when
it decreases, the liver converts stored nutrients back into glucose
-causes a drop rise glucose pattern and contains information that helps the brain
regulate hunger
-stomach and intestinal distention are both signals that terminate a meal (make you feel
-when our stomach stretches it sends signals to the brain - but not the only factor
-we also release hormones
-intestines respond to food by releasing peptides that travel to the brain to
decrease eating
-one such peptide is CCK ( cholecystokinin)
Signals that Regulate General Appetite and Weight
-fat cells regulate food intake and weight but secreting the hormone leptin
-as we gain fat, more leptin is secreted into the blood and reaches the brain
-influences the neural pathways to decrease appetite and increase energy
-leptin does not respond directly to food intake, it regulates appetite by increasing the
potency of other signals
-more leptin means we eat less becuase the mealtime satiety factors make us
feel full sooner
-drop rise pattern increases hunger
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