Psychology 1000 Study Guide - White Matter, Construct Validity, Syphilis

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Published on 16 Apr 2013
Department
Professor
Intelligence
Intelligence: the ability to acquire knowledge, to think and reason effectively, and to deal
adaptively with the environment
Intelligence in Historical Perspective
Sir Francis Galton: Quantifying Mental Ability
-Charles Darwin’s cousin and influenced by his theory of evolution
-believed that genius seemed to occur within family trees
-ignored the fact that the more successful people he studied almost always came
from privileged environments
-tried to measure intellience by measuring reaction speed, hand strength and size of
people’s skulls
-his measures were unrelated to intelligence but generated interest in measuring
intelligence
Alfred Binet’s Mental Tests
-made the forerunner of all modern intelligence tests
-made two assumptions
-mental abilities develop with age
-rate at which people gain mental competence is a characteristic of the person
and is fairly constant over time
-got teachers to make problems that children ages 3, 4, 5, etc could solve and used it to
develop a standardized interview
-score of test known as mental age
-if 8 year old could do 10 year old problem, his mental age was 10
-idea of mental age was expanded on by William Stern to make the IQ (intelligence
quotient): ratio of mental age to chronological age, multiplied by 100
-but because of schooling and the fact that people actually have their intelligence
skills decline as they age, today’s IQ tests provide a score based on a person’s
performance relative to the scores of other people the same age
Binet’s Legacy: An Intelligence Testing Industry Emerges
-Stanford Professor found Binet’s work and made a few changes and called it Stanford-
Binet
-it was used to test US Army recruits for WWI
-after that success, educators used similar instruments to test groups of children
-Wechsler developed a competitor when he believed that the Stanford-Binet relied too
much on verbal testing
The Nature of Intelligence
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Psychometric Approach: The Structure of Intellect
-Psychometrics: the statistical study of psychological tests
-tries to identify and measure the abilities that underlie individual differences in
performance
Factor Analysis
-researchers want to identify the mental abilities of the human mind
-they do this by testing different mental abilities and then clustering them
together, by looking at correlation, to reflect the same underlying mental skill
-it is hard to tell correlations when there are a large number of tests
-factor analysis reduces a large number of measures to a smaller number of
clusters with each containing variables that correlate highly with one another but
less highly with variables in other clusters------ basically identifies clusters
-if results correlate highly with each other they are assumed to be testing the same
mental abilities
-but even separate clusters show correlation, just less
-controversy if intelligence is general mental capacity or does it consist of
separate and specific mental abilities
The g Factor: Intelligence as General Mental Capacity
-Charles Spearman found that grades in different subjects were always positively
correlated
-eg. people who did well in math also did well in language
-argued that intelligence was a general ability
-concluded that intellectual performance is determined partly by a g factor: general
intelligence and partly by whatever special abilities might be required to perform that
particular task
-g factor cuts across all tasks, it is the core of intelligence
-still believed today, believed that g factor will predict job success
Intelligence as Specific Mental Abilities
-correlation is not perfect so Thurstone believed that human mental performance
depends on seven distinct abilities called primary mental abilities
-educators find this more useful than the g factor model
-easier to work on one area and improve on that than to improve general
intelligence
Crystallized and Fluid Intelligence
-broke down the g factor model into two subtypes of g
-crystallized intelligence: ability to apply previously acquired knowledge to current
problems
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-requires long term memory
-fluid intelligence : ability to handle new situations where personal experiences does not
provide a solution ( solving new problems)
-requires to think logically and manage information in working memory
-as we get older we progress from using fluid intelligence to crystallized intelligence
more
-performance for crystalized intelligence improves then remains stable, but fluid
intelligence decline as we enter late adulthood
Carrolls Three-Stratum Model: A Modern Synthesis
-three-stratum theory of cognitive abilities establishes three levels of mental skills (general,
broad, and narrow) arranged in a hierarchical model
-the general is the g factor
-provides the most complete and detailed map of the human intellect
Cognitive Process Approaches: The Nature of Intelligent Thinking
-Psychometric theories of intelligence describe how people are different from each
other but do not explain why they vary in these mental skills
-cognitive process theories explore the specific information-processing and cognitive
processes that underlie intellectual ability
-this was the logic behind Galton’s early attempts to relate intelligence to speed
of reaction
-Sternberg came up with the triarchic theory of intelligence that addresses psychological
processes involved in intelligent behaviour and the diverse forms that intelligence can
take
-divides the cognitive processes that underlie intelligent behaviour into three
specific components
-metacomponents: higher order processes used to plan and regulate task
performance
-underlie individual differences in fluid intelligences
-performance components: actual mental processes used to perform the
task eg. perceptual processing, retrieving appropriate memories and
schemas from longterm memory, generating responses
-knowledge acquisition components: allow us to learn from our experiences,
store information in memory and combine new insights with previously
acquired information
-underlie individual differences in crystallized intelligences
-says there are three intelligences
-Analytical intelligence: involves the things that helps with problem-
solving, good for academic success, tested by traditional tests
-Practical intelligence: skills needed to cope with the demands everyday
and take care of yourself and others
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Document Summary

Intelligence: the ability to acquire knowledge, to think and reason effectively, and to deal adaptively with the environment. Charles darwin"s cousin and influenced by his theory of evolution. Believed that genius seemed to occur within family trees. Ignored the fact that the more successful people he studied almost always came from privileged environments. Tried to measure intellience by measuring reaction speed, hand strength and size of people"s skulls. His measures were unrelated to intelligence but generated interest in measuring intelligence. Made the forerunner of all modern intelligence tests. Rate at which people gain mental competence is a characteristic of the person and is fairly constant over time. Got teachers to make problems that children ages 3, 4, 5, etc could solve and used it to develop a standardized interview. Score of test known as mental age. If 8 year old could do 10 year old problem, his mental age was 10.

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