Psychology Chapter One Key Terms
Applied Research: Designed specifically to solve practical problems
Basic Research: Quest for knowledge. Goal = to describe how people behave and identify the factors
that influence or cause types of behaviour
Behaviour Genetics: The study of how behavioural tendencies are influenced by genetic factors
Behaviour Modification: Techniques aimed at decreasing problem behaviours and increasing positive
behaviours by manipulating environmental factors.
Behavioural Neuroscience: Examines brain processes and other physiological functions that underlie
our behaviour, sensory experiences, emotions and thoughts
Behavioural Perspective: Focuses on the role of the external environment in governing our actions.
From this perspective our behaviour is jointly determined by habits learned from previous life
experiences and by stimuli in our immediate environment
Behaviourism: A school of thought that emphasizes environmental control of behaviour through
Biological Perspective: Examines how brain processes and other bodily functions regulate behaviour
Biopsychology: Focuses on the biological underpinnings of behaviour. Examine how brain processes,
genes and hormones influence our actions, thoughts and feelings
British Empiricism: Held that all ideas and knowledge are gained empirically (through the senses).
According to empiricists, observation is a more valid approach to knowledge than is pure reason,
because reason is fraught with the potential for error.
Clinical Psychology: The study and treatment of mental disorders
Cognitive Behaviourism: Learning experiences and the environment affect our behaviour by giving u the
information we need to behave effectively
Cognitive Neuroscience: The study of the brain activity of people engaging in cognitive tasks
Cognitive Perspective: Examines the nature of the mind and how mental processes influence behaviour.
In this view, humans are information processors whose actions are governed by thought.
Cognitive Psychology: Focuses on the study of mental processes, especially for a model that views the
mind as an information processor. It examines things such as consciousness, attention, memory,
decision making and problem solving.
Cultural Psychology: Aka cross-cultural psychology explores how culture is transmitted to its members
and examines people from diverse cultures (important difference: individualism vs collectivism)
Culture: Refers to the enduring values, beliefs, behaviours and traditions that are shared by a large
group of people and passed down from one generation to the next
Developmental Psychology: Examines human physical, psychological, and social development across
Evolutionary Psychology: Seeks to explain how evolution shaped modern human behaviour, stresses
that human mental abilities and behavioural tendencies evolve along with a changing body.
Experimental Psychology: Focuses on such basic processes as learning, sensory systems (i.e. hearing,
vision), perception, and motivational states (i.e. sexual motivation, hunger, thirst)
Functionalism: Psychology should study the functions of consciousness rather than its structure (i.e.
why do we have hands, how do they help us adapt to our environment vs the structuralism approach)