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Psychology 1000- Final Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 228 pages long!)


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYCH 1000
Professor
Laura Fazakas- De Hoog
Study Guide
Final

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Western
Psychology 1000
Final EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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Psychology Chapter One Key Terms
Applied Research: Designed specifically to solve practical problems
Basic Research: Quest for knowledge. Goal = to describe how people behave and identify the factors
that influence or cause types of behaviour
Behaviour Genetics: The study of how behavioural tendencies are influenced by genetic factors
Behaviour Modification: Techniques aimed at decreasing problem behaviours and increasing positive
behaviours by manipulating environmental factors.
Behavioural Neuroscience: Examines brain processes and other physiological functions that underlie
our behaviour, sensory experiences, emotions and thoughts
Behavioural Perspective: Focuses on the role of the external environment in governing our actions.
From this perspective our behaviour is jointly determined by habits learned from previous life
experiences and by stimuli in our immediate environment
Behaviourism: A school of thought that emphasizes environmental control of behaviour through
learning
Biological Perspective: Examines how brain processes and other bodily functions regulate behaviour
Biopsychology: Focuses on the biological underpinnings of behaviour. Examine how brain processes,
genes and hormones influence our actions, thoughts and feelings
British Empiricism: Held that all ideas and knowledge are gained empirically (through the senses).
According to empiricists, observation is a more valid approach to knowledge than is pure reason,
because reason is fraught with the potential for error.
Clinical Psychology: The study and treatment of mental disorders
Cognitive Behaviourism: Learning experiences and the environment affect our behaviour by giving u the
information we need to behave effectively
Cognitive Neuroscience: The study of the brain activity of people engaging in cognitive tasks
Cognitive Perspective: Examines the nature of the mind and how mental processes influence behaviour.
In this view, humans are information processors whose actions are governed by thought.
Cognitive Psychology: Focuses on the study of mental processes, especially for a model that views the
mind as an information processor. It examines things such as consciousness, attention, memory,
decision making and problem solving.
Cultural Psychology: Aka cross-cultural psychology explores how culture is transmitted to its members
and examines people from diverse cultures (important difference: individualism vs collectivism)
Culture: Refers to the enduring values, beliefs, behaviours and traditions that are shared by a large
group of people and passed down from one generation to the next
Developmental Psychology: Examines human physical, psychological, and social development across
the lifespan
Evolutionary Psychology: Seeks to explain how evolution shaped modern human behaviour, stresses
that human mental abilities and behavioural tendencies evolve along with a changing body.
Experimental Psychology: Focuses on such basic processes as learning, sensory systems (i.e. hearing,
vision), perception, and motivational states (i.e. sexual motivation, hunger, thirst)
Functionalism: Psychology should study the functions of consciousness rather than its structure (i.e.
why do we have hands, how do they help us adapt to our environment vs the structuralism approach)
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Gestalt Psychology: Examined ho the id ogaizes eleets of epeiee ito a uified o hole
perception. They argued that perceptions are organized so that the whole is greater than the sum of its
pats
Humanistic Perspective: Emphasized free will, personal growth and the attempt to find meaning in
oes eistee
Industrial-Organizational Psychology: Eaies peoples ehaiou i the okplae. Pshologists
stud leadeship, teaok, ad the fatos that ifluee eploees jo satisfatio, ok otiatio
and performace
Interaction: Means that the way in which one factor influences behaviour depends on the presence of
another factor
Levels of Analysis: Simple framework - Behaviour and its causes can be examined at the biological level,
the psychological level and the environmental level.
Mind-Body Dualism: The belief that the mind is a spiritual entity not subject to physical laws that govern
the body.
Monism: Holds that the mind and body are one and that the mind is not a separate spiritual entity. To
monists, mental events correspond to physical events in the brain
Natural Selection: If an inherited trait gives certain members an advantage over others (such as
increasing their ability to attract mates or escape from danger) these members will be more likely to
survive and pass on these characteristics to their offspring.
Neurotransmitters: Chemicals released by nerve cells that allow them to communicate with one
another
Personality Psychology: Focuses on the study of human personality. Psychologists seek to identify core
personality traits and how different traits relate to one another and influence behaviour
Perspectives: Different ways of viewing people
Positive Psychology Movement: Emphasizes the study of human strengths, fulfillment, and optimal
living
Psychoanalysis: The analysis of internal and primarily unconscious psychological forces
Psychodynamic Perspective: Searches for the causes of behaviour within the inner workings of our
personality (our unique patterns of traits, emotions, and motives), emphasizing the role of unconscious
processes
Psychology: The scientific study of behaviour and the mind
Self-actualization: The eahig of oes idiidual potetial
Social Psychology: Eaies peoples thoughts, feeligs, ad ehaiou petaiig to the social world:
the world of other people. Psychologists study how people influence one another, behave in groups, and
form impressions and attitudes, sand also social relationships involving attraction and love, prejudice
and discrimination, helping, and aggression
Sociobiology: Holds that complex social behaviours are also built into the human species as products of
evolution. Sociobiologists argue that natural selection favours behaviours that increase the ability to
pass o oes gees to the et geeation (includes aggression, competition and dominance in males
and cooperative and nurturing tendencies in females)
Sociocultural Perspective: Examines how the social environment and cultural learning influence our
behaviour, thoughts and feelings
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