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Psychology 1000- Final Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 195 pages long!)


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYCH 1000
Professor
Dr.Mike
Study Guide
Final

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Western
Psychology 1000
Final EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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Chapter 14Personality
PSYCHODYNAMIC PERSPECTIVE
- Unconscious behavior is caused by inner forces in conflict with one another
Psychoanalytic theory
- Personality is an energy system
o Instinctual drives generate psychic energy pressing for direct/indirect release
- Mental events can be:
1) Conscious Immediate awareness of current environment
2) Preconscious Contains memories, thoughts, feelings we’re unaware of currently but can
be called into conscious awareness
3) Unconscious Unavailable to awareness (infantile memories, repressed wishes)
STRUCTURE OF PERSONALITY
ID (Instinct)
- Present at birth
- Exists within the unconscious mind and is the source of psychic energy
- No contact with reality and functions irrationally
- Follows pleasure principle
o Maximize pleasure, minimize pain.
o Seeks immediate gratification, regardless of rational circumstances
o Primary Process Theoryif needs can’t be met with reality, fantasy will do
EGO (Reality)
- Second to develop
- Functions at the conscious level
- Follows reality principle
o Tests reality to decide when the id can safely discharge impulses
Controls ID by delaying gratification until conditions are appropriate
- Executive of personality—must balance constraints of Superego and demands of Id
SUPEREGO (Moral)
- Last to develop (4/5 years old)
- Functions in both conscious and unconcious
- In charge of moralistic goals over realistic ones
o Ideals internalized by child from parents and society on what’s right and wrong
- Strives to control id (sexual and aggressive impulses) by completely blocking gratification
permanently
ANXIETY
- Danger signal that motivates ego to deal with problem
- Reduced through realistic coping strategies (I.e. Talking it out)
- 3 sources of anxiety in psychodynamic perspective:
1) Reality anxiety - fear of real world threats
2) Neurotic anxiety - fear of id’s desires
3) Moral anxiety - fear of superego’s guilt
Defense mechanisms
- Deny or distort reality to deal with anxiety when realistic strategies don’t work
- Operate unconsciously
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Defense mechanism
Description
Repression
Ego prevents anxiety-arousing memories,
feelings, thoughts to enter consciousness
- Pushed to unconscious and can be
expressed indirectly (dreams)
Sublimation
Anxiety released in socially acceptable/admired
behavior, masking underlying impulse
- Hating brother and painting a picture of
him falling off building
Denial
Refusing to acknowledge anxiety
Displacement
Impulse is repressed and then directed at a
safer target (not always aggressive)
- E.g. Man harassed by boss comes home
and yells at wife
Intellectualization
Emotion to sad event is repressed and dealt
with as an intellectually interesting event
Projection
Impulse is repressed and attributed to other
people
- E.g. Women with repressed desires of
cheating accuses husband of cheating
Rationalization
Constructing false but plausible explanation for
anxiety
- Student caught for cheating justifies by
saying everyone else was too
Sour grapes effect: When you want something
but can’t get it, you justify that you can’t get it by
saying it wasn’t even that great)
Reaction formation
Anxiety is repressed and released in an
exaggerated expression of the opposite
behavior
- E.g. Suffocating someone with
exaggerated love when you hate them
1. Hostility often shows
Love is stifling and sister probably
feels smothered by it
2. Negation
) don’t hate my sister
Conversion
Anxiety diverted into physical symptoms
- E.g. Developing blindness upon
anxiety
Regression
Mentally returning to an earlier, safer state
- E.g. Thumb sucking, bed wetting
Psychosexual development
- )d’s desires are focused on erogenous zones
- )f there’s excessive or inadequate gratification at a stage, fixation occurs and adult personality
is affected. Note: Penis envy is a women’s desire to have a penis
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