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Psychology 1000 Study Guide - Quiz Guide: Sick Role, Limbic System, Muscle Relaxant

Course Code
PSYCH 1000
Corey Isaacs
Study Guide

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Antidepressant Drugs
3 Major Categories: tricyclics, monoamine Oxidase inhibitors, and selective serotonin
reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)
Tricyclics and monoamine Oxidase inhibitors (MAO) increase excitatory
neurotransmitters norepinephrine and serotonin activity, lowering activity in brain
regions involved in positive emotion and motivation which is related to depression.
Tricyclics prevent reuptake of the excitatory transmitters into the presynaptic neurons,
allowing them to continue stimulating postsynaptic neurons.
MAO inhibitors have more severe side effects. They can cause dangerous elevations in
blood pressure when taken with certain food
SSRI are designed to decrease side effects by increasing activity of just one
neurotransmitter, serotonin
SSRIs gradually replace the tricyclics because they reduce depressive symptoms more
rapidly, reduce anxiety symptoms (panic disorders, obsessive-compulsive behaviours,
and social phobia)
The combination of psychotherapy and drug treatment tends to yield the best
Antipsychotic Drugs:
Antipsychotic drug therapy began when it was accidentally discovered that reserpine, a
drug derived from the root of the snakeroot plant, calmed psychotic patients.
This resulted in the development of synthetic antipsychotic drugs (major tranquilizers),
which are used today to treat schizophrenia
They decrease the action of dopamine, whose overactivity is thought to be involved in
They reduce positive symptoms such as hallucinations and delusions, but have little
effect on the negative symptoms, such as apathy and withdrawal.
These drugs are suggested to be used on a continual basis due to the high likelihood of
These drugs can produce a severe movement disorder called tardive dyskinesia
uncontrollable and grotesque movements of the face and tongue and sometimes arms
and legs flail uncontrollably.
Once this reaction develops it appears to be irreversible and they effects are sometimes
worse than the symptoms that diagnosed the patient with schizophrenia to begin with
Other treatments with less severe side effects are in the process of being made
A new drug called Clozaril reduces positive and negative symptoms and does not
appear to produce tardive dyskinesia. But, it produces a fatal blood disease in 1-2% of
people who take it, requiring extensive weekly blood tests for patients who use it
Antipsychotic drugs work best in conjunction with psychotherapy
Electroconvulsive Therapy:
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