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Midterm

Psychology 1000 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Sociobiology, Aphasia, Agnosia


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYCH 1000
Professor
John Campbell
Study Guide
Midterm

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MIDTERMPSYCH1000NOTES
INTROTOPSYCHCHAPTER1
● Psychologyisthescientificstudyofthebehaviourandthemind
● Behaviourdirectlyobservableactionsandresponses
● Mindinternalstatesandprocessesthatcannotbeseen
FieldsofPsychology(%ofpsychologistsinthatfield)
● Clinicalpsychology(43%)thestudyandtreatmentofmentaldisorders
ExperimentalPsych(8%)thestudyofhumanlearning,senses,perceptionand
motivationalthroughexperimentsoppositeofclinicalpsychology
● Counselling(11%)
● SchoolPsychologists(7%)
● Educationalpsych(5%)
● Industrialorganizationalpsych(7%)
SocialPsych(4%)peoplesinfluencesoneachother,behaviouringroupsettings,
impressions
● Developmentpsych(4%)
Personalitypsych(2%)identifycorepersonalitytraitsandhowtheyrelateand
influencebehaviour
GoalsforPsychology
1. Todescribehowpeoplebehave
2. Toexplainandunderstandcausesofbehaviour
3. Topredicthowpeoplewillbehave
4. Toinfluencebehaviourtoenhancehumanwelfare
Basicresearch:knowledgeforitsownsake
Appliedresearch:designedtosolvespecificpracticalproblems
LevelsofAnalysis
1. Biological:brainprocesses,genetics
2. Individual/Psychological:thoughts,feelings,motives
3. Environmental/Cultural:pastandcurrentphysicalandsocialenvironment
ModernPsychologicalPerspectives
Behaviourism
● Forgetthe“mind”focusonactualobservablebehaviour
● Discusshowbehaviourchangesundervariousconditions
● Focusonexternalenvironmentingoverningactions
LawofEffect:Learningiskeytohowexperienceshapesbehaviour

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CognitiveBehaviour:experience&environmentaffectbehaviourbygivingustheinfoweneed
tobehaveeffectively
PsychodynamicPerspective
● Pioneeredbyfreud
● Studiesthebehaviourwithintheinnerworkingsofthemindemphasizingunconscious
processes
● Followsthestrugglebetweentheconsciousandtheunconscious
● Looksforunresolvedconflict
● UsesPSYCHOANALYSISanalysisofunconsciouspsychologicalforces
HumanisticPerspective
● PioneeredbyCarlRogers
● FocusesonvaluesandchoicereactiontotheFreudians
● Helpspeople“fulfilltheirfullpotential”
● Cameuptheideaof“selfconcept”
SocioculturalPerspective
● Examineshowsocialenvironment(otherpeople)affectsbehaviour,thoughts,feelings
CulturalPsychology:examineshowculture(values,beliefs,behaviour,traditions)arepassedon
andthesimilarities/differencesacrosscultures
BiologicalPerspective
● Examineshowprocessesandotherbodilyfunctionsregulatebehaviour
BehaviouralNeuroscience:examinesbrainprocessesthatunderliebehaviour,senses,
emotions,thoughts
EvolutionaryPsychology:examineshowevolutionshapesbehaviour
Sociobiology:socialbehavioursaretheproductsofevolution,astheybetterallowthepassing
ofgenes(aggression,competition,nurturing)
CognitivePerspective
● Examinesmentalprocesseshumansasinfoprofessors
Gestalt(Whole)psychology:basesontheideathatthemindperceivesthingsasawholerather
thaninparts,lookhowpeoplethinkandremember
Cognitiveneuroscience:examinebrainactivityofcognitivetasks

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METHODOLOGYCHAPTER2
ScientificProcess
1. Identifyquestionofinterest
2. Gatherinfoandformhypothesis
3. Testhypothesisbyconductingresearch
4. Analyzedata,drawtentativeconclusions,reportfindings
5. Buildaboldofknowledge,askfurtherquestions,conductmoreresearch,developand
testtheories
DescriptiveResearch
● Naturalisticobservation:observebehaviourinanaturalsetting,attemptingtoavoid
influencingbehaviour
● CaseStudy:indepthstudyofoneindividual,grouporevent
● Surveymethods:surveyandquestionnaires
● Populationallindividualsweareinterestedin
● Samplesubsetdrawnfromthelargerpopulation
● Representativesamplereflectsimportantcharacteristicsofpopulation
● Stratifiedrandomsamplingif45%ofthepopulationismale,then45%ofrandom
samplespaceswouldbeformales
CorrelationalResearch
● Correlationalmethod:determinedegreeofrelationshipbetweentwoormorevariables,
notmanipulatingthevariables,justobservingexistingdata,ex:Relationbetweengrades
andwatchingTV
● Bidirectionalityproblem:doesXcauseYordoesYcauseX?Ordobothinfluenceeach
other?
● ThirdVariableProblem:causesbothbutmakesthemseemcorrelated
● Correlationcoefficient:numberbetween1and1thatindicatesdirectionandstrengthof
correlation(0.78isstrongnegative,+0.12isweakpositive,0isnone)
 PositiveCorrelation:higherscoresononevariablecausehigherscoresonthe
other
 NegativeCorrelation:higherscoresononevariablecauselowerscoresonthe
other
ExperimentalResearch
Experimentalmethod:onlywaytodeterminecausality
1. Manipulatetheindependentvariable(ex.TVWatchinghours)
2. Measurethedependentvariable(ex.Grade)
3. Controlextraneousfactors
● Controlbetweensubjectscontrolandexperimentalgroupareseparatepeople
● Controlthroughrepeatedmeasuressamegroupdoesexperimenttwice,oncewithout
independentvariableandoncewithit
● Counterbalancingvarytheorderofconditionsin“repeatedmeasure”experimentsto
removeadvantagesor“ordereffects”
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