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Final

Psychology 1000 Lecture Notes - Lecture 7: Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Frontal Lobe, ForegoExam


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYCH 1000
Professor
Laura Lyn Fazakas Dehoog
Study Guide
Final

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1. Billy is a young child who cannot demonstrate the ability to delay gratification. Research
shows that Billy:
A. is unlikely to become a criminal
B. will have more difficulty coping with stress and frustration as an adolescent
C. is able to forego an immediate but smaller reward for a delayed but more satisfying outcome
D. cannot forego an immediate but smaller reward for a delayed but more satisfying outcome
E. both will have more difficulty coping with stress and frustration as an adolescent AND cannot
forego an immediate but smaller reward for a delayed but more satisfying outcome
2. You are taking a shower in your dorm and you hear a toilet being flushed nearby. You briefly
step out of the flow of water because you have learned that the water becomes very hot for a
few moments after this happens. In this example, which of the following would be considered to
be the discriminative stimulus?
A. the avoidance of hot water
B. the exposure to hot water
C. stepping out of the shower
D. the sound of the toilet being flushed
E. exposure to the dorm bathroom
3. Animals placed on this schedule of reinforcement often show a pause in responding briefly
after being reinforced possibly because they have learned that the next response is never
reinforced. This behaviour is indicative of the ____________ schedule of reinforcement.
A. fixed-interval
B. fixed-ratio
C. variable-interval
D. variable-ratio
E. intermittent ratio
4. Escape conditioning and avoidance conditioning are maintained through
A. operant generalization.
B. operant discrimination.
C. negative reinforcement.
D. stimulus generalization.
E. positive reinforcement.
5. Olga has severe symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder. It is likely that neuroimaging
studies will show
A. increased activation of the frontal cortex only.
B. decreased activation of the frontal cortex only.
C. decreased activation of the right amygdala only.
D. increased activation of the frontal cortex and decreased activation of the right amygdale.
E. decreased activation of the frontal cortex and increased activation of the right amygdale.
6. Animals appear to be biologically pre wired to easily learn behaviour that is related to their
survival as a species because of evolutionary forces. This is referred to as _____________.

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A. latent learning
B. operant extinction
C. preparedness
D. avoidance conditioning
E. fixed action patterning
7. According to the ______________ perspective of operant conditioning, the best predictor of
behaviour is the perceived contingency between behaviour and its consequences.
A. traditional
B. social
C. behavioural
D. biological
E. cognitive
8. Which of the following has the highest adaptive significance for humans in terms of its ability
to save time and effort, and to reduce exposure to potentially dangerous trial-and-error
processes?
A. observational learning
B. classical conditioning
C. higher order conditioning
D. operant conditioning
E. secondary reinforcement
9. Which of the following statement(s) is/are FALSE?
A. Behaviourists treated the organism as a tabula rasa, or blank tablet; ethologists argued that
every species comes into the world biologically prepared to act in certain ways.
B. Ethologists treated the organism as a tabula rasa, or blank tablet; behaviourists argued that
every species comes into the world biologically prepared to act in certain ways.
C. Ethologists focused on behaviour in the natural setting; behaviourists conducted most of their
research in controlled laboratory settings.
D. Behaviourists focused on behaviour in the natural setting; ethologists conducted most of their
research in controlled laboratory settings.
E. Both ethologists treated the organism as a tabula rasa, or blank tablet; behaviourists argued
that every species comes into the world biologically prepared to act in certain ways AND
behaviourists focused on behaviour in the natural setting; ethologists conducted most of their
research in controlled laboratory settings are false.
10. When the conditioned stimulus is presented repeatedly without the unconditioned stimulus,
the conditioned response will gradually weaken in a process called
A. extinction.
B. negative reinforcement.
C. discrimination.
D. habituation.
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