Psychology: the scientific study of behaviour and the factors that influence it. Psychologists use the term behaviour very broadly to refer both to actions that we can observe directly and to inner processes. Psychologists take into account biological, individual, and environmental factors. Basic research: the quest for knowledge purely for its own sake. Used to describe how people behave and to identify the factors that influence or cause a particular type of behaviour. Applied research: designed to solve specific practical problems. Uses principles discovered through basic research to solve practical problems. Successful prediction and control are the best ways for us to know whether we truly understand the causes of behaviour. They are the biological, cognitive, psychodynamic, behavioral, humanistic, and sociocultural perspectives. Many ancient greek philosophers believed in mind-body dualism, the belief that the mind is a spiritual entity not subject to the physical laws that govern the body.