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Psychology 1000 Final: Complete and Comprehensive 110 Page Final Exam Study GuidePremium

Course Code
PSYCH 1000
Laura Fazakas- De Hoog
Study Guide

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PSYCHOL 1000 – Introductory Psychology
Final Exam Study Guide
Professor: Fazakas-Dehoog
University of Western Ontario

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PSYCHOL 1000 - Lecture 1 - Introduction
Psychology is based on research
Topics we will learn:
The brain and the mind
Consciousness vs. unconsciousness
Feelings and emotions
Behaviour (normal vs. abnormal)
When alone vs. in group (how we act)
PSYCHOL 1000 - Lecture 2 - History of Psychology
What is Psychology?
Psychology is composed of 2 root words
Psyche meaning soul, spirit, self or life
-ology meaning branch of knowledge
Scientific study of behaviour and the mind
Thoughts (e.g. cognitive processes, language, memory)
Feelings and emotions
Behaviour: directly observable actions and responses
Mind: internal states and processes that cannot be seen directly, but
inferred from observation
Goals are to describe and to understand actions, thoughts, feelings and reactions in
order to predict and to control them
To describe how people behave
To explain and to understand causes of behaviour
To predict how people will behave
To influence behaviour to enhance human welfare
Roots of Psychology
2 major influences:
Philosophy: study ideas about how knowledge can be acquired
Natural science: progress in understanding the brain, nervous system, senses
and biological processes
Philosophical Perspectives
Nativism: knowledge is innate (i.e. inherited)
Focus on hereditary factors

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Nature side of the nature vs. nurture debate
Empiricism: knowledge is gained through environment, observation and our senses
Experiences more important than heredity
Study only what could be observed
Nurture side of the nature vs. nurture debate
Rationalism: knowledge gained through logic and reasoning
History of Studying Behaviour: The Philosophers and Philosophical Influences
Empiricism is born
Knowledge acquired through experiences, senses, environment and
Believed environment and upbringing shape cognitive abilities
John Locke
Said nothing can exist within the intellect that did not have its origins in the
senses (meaning taking information from environment was important)
Referred as tabula rasa (born as a blank slate)
Meaning knowledge is acquired through experiences
History of Studying Behaviour: Natural Science
Phrenology: complex mental faculties all localized in discrete areas of the
bumps in the skull indicate overdeveloped brain regions
cranioscopy: technique used to understand and to determine
someone’s personality and intellect from these bumps
the larger the bumps the more developed it was
localized brain regions for behaviour
believed different brain regions have different functions
believed functions were not localized
entire brain worked in synchrony to produce general functions (behaviour
is distributed across many areas)
Charles Darwin
theory of natural selection
survival of the fittest: individuals who are most suited for the
environment reproduce and pass on their genes to the next
Nothing special about humans
humans can be studied scientifically
Ivan Sechenov
believed all complex behaviour can be explained by simple reflexes
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