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Psychology 1000 Study Guide - Final Guide: Carl Jung, Unconscious Mind, Erogenous Zone

Course Code
PSYCH 1000
John Campbell
Study Guide

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Jessica Sands
Chapter 14
Psychology 1000
Concept of personality based on consistency and individuality
Personality traits: Characterize individual’s customary ways of responding to their world
Personality: Distinctive and relatively enduring ways of thinking, feeling, and acting that
characterize person’s responses to life situations
Thoughts, feelings, actions have three characteristics
1. Seen as component of identity that distinguish person from other people
2. Behaviours are viewed as being caused primarily by internal rather than environmental
3. Person’s behaviour seem to “fit together” in meaningful fashion
Suggesting inner personality that guides and directs behaviour
Recall: Theory is scientifically useful to extent that it:
1. Provides comprehensive framework within which known facts can be incorporated
2. Allows us to predict future events with some precision
3. Stimulates discovery of new knowledge
Psychodynamic theorists look for causes of behaviour in dynamic interplay of inner forces that often
conflict with one another
Also focus on unconscious determinants of behaviour
Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory
Worked with Jean Charcot
Charcot was treating patients with conversations hysteria (physical symptoms such as paralysis and
blindness appeared for no reason)
Freud was led to believe that symptoms caused by painful memories and feeling that seemed to have
been repressed or pushed out of awareness
When patients were able to re-experience those traumatic memories, symptoms often disappeared or
improved markedly
Convinced Freud that unconscious part of mind exerts influence on behaviour
Experimented with various techniques to access unconscious mind
Free association
Dream analysis
Psychic Energy and Mental Events
Instinctual drives generate psychic energy, which powers mind and constantly presses for either direct
or indirect release
Ex. Build up of energy from sexual drives might be discharged directly in form of sexual activity or
indirectly through sexual fantasies, farming, or painting
Mental events may be conscious, preconscious, or unconscious
Conscious Mind: Consists of mental events that we are presently aware of
Preconscious Mind: Memories, thoughts, feelings, images that we are unaware of at the moment
but can be called into conscious awareness
Unconscious Mind: Dynamic realm of wishes, feelings impulses that lies beyond our awareness
Revealed in dreams, slips of tongue, disguised behaviour
Structure of Personality
Exists totally within the unconscious mind
Innermost core of personality
Only structure present at birth, source of all psychic energy
No direct contact with reality and functions in a totally irrational manner

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Jessica Sands
Chapter 14
Psychology 1000
Operates according to Pleasure Principle: Seeks immediate gratification or release, regardless of
rations considerations and environmental realities
Functions primarily at conscious level and operates according to Reality Principle: Tests reality to
decide when and under what conditions id can safely discharge impulses and satisfy its needs
Balances demands of id and constraints of id —> “Executive of personality”
Last personality structure to develop (age 4-5)
Moral arm of personality
With development of superego, self-control takes over from external controls of rewards and
Strives to control instincts of id particularly sexual and aggressive impulses that are condemned by
Whereas ego tries to delay gratification until conditions are safe and appropriate, superego tries to
block gratification permanently
Moralistic goals take precedence over realistic ones, regardless of potential cost to individual
Ex. feeling guilty about sex even when married because internalized idea that sex is dirty
Conflict, Anxiety, and Defence
Dynamics of personality involve a never-ending struggle between the id trying to discharge its
instinctive energies and opposing forces generated by ego and superego
When ego confronts impulses that threaten to get out of control or is faced with dangers from
environment, anxiety results
Like pain, anxiety serves as danger signal and motivates ego to deal with problem at hand
When realistic strategies are ineffective in reducing anxiety, ego resorts to Coping Mechanisms
Deny or distort reality
Defence Mechanism
An active defensive process through which anxiety-arousing impulses or memories are
pushed into the unconscious mind
A person refuses to acknowledge anxiety-arousing aspects of the environment. The denial
may involve either the emotions connected wit the event or the event itself
An unacceptable or dangerous impulse is repressed, and then directed at a safer substitute
The emotion connected with an upsetting event is repressed and the situation is dealt with
as an intellectually interesting event
An unacceptable impulse is repressed, and then attributed to (projected onto) other people
A person constructs a false but plausible explanation or excuse for an anxiety-arousing
behaviour or event that has already occurred
Reaction Formation
An anxiety-arousing impulsed is repressed, and its psychhic energy finds release in an
exaggerated expression of the opposite behaviour
A repressed impulse is released in the form of socially acceptable or even admired

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Jessica Sands
Chapter 14
Psychology 1000
Psychosexual Development
Children pass through a series of psychosexual stages during which the id’s pleasure-seeking
tendencies are focused on specific pleasure-sensitive areas of the body called erogenous zone
Deprivations or overindulgences can arise during any of these stages, resulting in fixation: a state of
arrested psychosexual development in which instincts are focused on a particular psychic theme
Research on Psychoanalytic Theory
Major short coming of psychoanalytic theory is that it is ambiguous and difficult to measure
How do you measure strength of individual’s id impulses or study process unconscious and
inaccessible to the person?
Freud’s Legacy: Neo-analytic and Object Relationships
Psychoanalysts who disagreed with certain aspects of Freud’s thinking and developed own theories
Alfred Adler, Karen Horney, Erik Erickson, Carl Jung
Believed Freud did not give social and cultural factors a sufficiently important role in development
and dynamics of personality
Main 2 criticisms:
Stressed infantile sexuality too much
Too much emphasis on events of childhood as determinants of adult personality
Alfred Adler
Humans are inherently social beings who are motivated by social interest, desire to advance
welfare of others
Care about others, cooperate, place general social welfare above selfish personal interests
In contrast Freud view people as savage animals caged by bars of civilization
Striving for superiority, drives people to compensate for real or imagined defects in themselves
(inferiority complex) and strive to live more competent life
Carl Jung
Analytic Psychology
Expanded Freud’s notion of unconscious
Believed humans possess not only personal unconscious but also collective unconscious that
consists of memories accumulated throughout entire history of human race
Memories represented by Archetypes: Inherited tendencies to interpret experience in certain ways
Symbols, myths, beliefs that appear across many cultures (Eg. God, evil, hero)
Object Relations
Focus on images or mental representations that people form of themselves and other people as a
result of early experience with care givers
Whether realistic or distorted, internal representations of important adults become lenses or
“working models” through which later social interactions are viewed
Relational themes exert unconscious influence on person’s relationships throughout life
Key Task
Toilet training
Resolving Oedipus complex
Developing social relationships
Developing mature social and
sexual relationships
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