Chapter 7 learning and adaptation: role of experience. Learning process by which experience produces a relatively enduring change in an organism"s behaviour or capabilities. Behaviourists focus on how organisms learn, examining the processes by which the experience influences behaviour. Ethology focuses on the functions of behaviour: adaptive significance how behaviour influences an organism"s chances for survival, fixed action pattern unlearned response automatically triggered by a particular stimulus. Classical conditioning learning to associate two stimuli such that one stimulus comes to produce a response that originally was only produced by the other stimulus. Pavlov discovered that when a stimulus is associated with food, dogs will learn to associate the stimulus with food, and will salivate: before conditioning: Food (ucs) salivation (ucr: during conditioning: Tone (cs) + food (ucs) salivation (ucr: after conditioning: Extinction and spontaneous recovery: extinction - if cs is presented repeatedly without ucs, cr will weaken and disappear.