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Psychology 2010A/B Study Guide - Donald Broadbent, Noam Chomsky, Daniel Kahneman

Course Code
Terry Biggs

of 21
The Human Mind
Chapter 1: Introduction
Cognitive Psychology : The study of the mental operations that support peoples
acquisition and use of knowledge
Reduction when information is lost
Elaboration when we add to the sensory input
Memory-> the storage and recovery of information
Storage does not guarantee recovery “tip of the tongue phenomenon”
The Information- Processing Approach
Human Information Processing: the psychological approach that attempts to
identify what occurs in various stages (attention, perception , short term memory)
of processing information
Acquisition, storage and retrieval have a number of stages
Stages arranges in temporal order
Sensory Store: The part of memory that holds unanalyzed sensory info for a fraction
of a second, providing an opportunity for additional analysis following the physical
termination of a stimulus
Pattern Recognition: Stage of perception during which the stimulus is identified
Filter: the part of attention in which some perceptual information (from the sensory
store or pattern recognition) is blocked out and not recognized while other info
receives attention and is recognized
Selection Stage: stage that follows pattern recognition and determines which ifo a
person will try to remember
Short Term Memory: memory that has a limited capacity and that last only
approximately 20-30 seconds in the absence of attending to its content
Long Term Memory: memory that has no capacity limits and lasts from minutes to
an entire lifetime
Bottom up processing: the flow of info from sensory store toward LTM
Top Down Processing: flow of information from LTM to sensory store
The Growth of Cognitive Psychology
James Cognitive Psychology (1890)
Kohlers Mentality of the Apes (1925)
Other Gestalt psychologists
Bartlett (1932)
Watsons Behaviorism book had a negative impact
Watson supported the stimulus response approach
Stimulus Response Approach: emphasizes the association between a
stimulus and a response without identifying the mental operations that
produced that response
Information Processing Gathers Momentum
Stimulated by popularity of computers
Many inputs can enter the sensory store but only one can enter pattern
Two messages can be recognized only if the unattended message passes
through the filter before it decays from the sensory store
Broadbents filter model implies that a perceptual limitation prevents people
form comprehending two messages spoken at the same time
Sperling sensory store, pattern recognition and STM combined to influence
performance on a task
Higher Cognitive Processes
Artificial Intelligence: The study of how to produce computer Programs that can
perform intellectually demanding tasks
Argue that much of human behaviour is planned ( Miller, Galatner and
New unit called TOTE ( test; operate; test; exit)
Plan: a temporarily ordered sequence of operations for carrying out some task
Chomsky grammar consistent with planning
Cognitions Relation to Other Fields
Currently the prominent field
Having an increasing impact on applied psychology
Cognitive Science: the interdisciplinary attempt to studt cognitnoin through fields
such as psychology, philosophy, artificial intelligence, neuroscience linguistics and
Cognitive Neuroscience: The study of relation between cognitive process and brain
Frontal Lobe planning of movement, some aspects of memory, inhibition of
inappropriate behaviours; damage can interfere with memory
Parietal Lobe body information and sensations
Temporal Lobe hearing, advances visual processing, understanding
language, recognizing complex visual patterns such as faces
Occipital Lobe vision; damage results in normal pupil reflexes but no
awareness or pattern perception of visual info
Function Magnetic Resonance Imaging( fMRI); uses magnetic fields and
computerized images to locate mental operations in the brain
Position Emission Tomography(PET):diagnostic technique that ises radioactive
tracers to study brain activity by measuring the amount of blood flow in different
parts of the brain
Event Related Potential (ERP) a diagnostic technique that uses electrodes placed on
the scalp to measure the duration of brain waves during mental tasks
Chapter 2: Pattern Recognition
Pattern Recognition: The stage of perception during which a stimulus is identified
Study of how people identify objects in their environment
Used to identify if you are human online
Describing Patterns
3 explanations
Template Theories
- Template: an unanalyzed pattern that is matched against alternative
patterns by using the degrees of overlap as a measure of similarity
- Identity of pattern identified by which template it overlaps with the
- Problem is that the position, orientation and size of the templates
would have to be continuously adjusted
- Great variability of patters; difficult to construct enough templates
- Templates do not reveal how two patterns differ
- Does not allow for alternative descriptions of a pattern
- Patterns can be represented as unanalyzed templates
- Interstimulus Interval: The amount of time between the end of a
stimulus and the beginning of another stimulus
- When 2 stimulus presented in identical locations the accuracy
declined as the interstimulus interval lengthened suggests use of
sensory store
- Suggests that sensory store can be used for a rapid template match is
two patters are separated by less than 300 msec and are presented in
the same location
Feature Theories
- Allow us to describe a pattern by listing its parts