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The Human Mind.docx

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Psychology 2010A/B
Terry Biggs

The Human Mind Chapter 1: Introduction Cognitive Psychology : The study of the mental operations that support peoples acquisition and use of knowledge Reduction when information is lost Elaboration when we add to the sensory input Memory-> the storage and recovery of information Storage does not guarantee recovery tip of the tongue phenomenon The Information- Processing Approach Human Information Processing: the psychological approach that attempts to identify what occurs in various stages (attention, perception , short term memory) of processing information Acquisition, storage and retrieval have a number of stages Stages arranges in temporal order Sensory Store: The part of memory that holds unanalyzed sensory info for a fraction of a second, providing an opportunity for additional analysis following the physical termination of a stimulus Pattern Recognition: Stage of perception during which the stimulus is identified Filter: the part of attention in which some perceptual information (from the sensory store or pattern recognition) is blocked out and not recognized while other info receives attention and is recognized Selection Stage: stage that follows pattern recognition and determines which ifo a person will try to remember Short Term Memory: memory that has a limited capacity and that last only approximately 20-30 seconds in the absence of attending to its content Long Term Memory: memory that has no capacity limits and lasts from minutes to an entire lifetime Bottom up processing: the flow of info from sensory store toward LTM Top Down Processing: flow of information from LTM to sensory store The Growth of Cognitive Psychology James Cognitive Psychology (1890) Kohlers Mentality of the Apes (1925) Other Gestalt psychologists Bartlett (1932) Watsons Behaviorism book had a negative impact Watson supported the stimulus response approach Stimulus Response Approach: emphasizes the association between a stimulus and a response without identifying the mental operations that produced that response Information Processing Gathers Momentum 1950s Stimulated by popularity of computers Many inputs can enter the sensory store but only one can enter pattern recognition Two messages can be recognized only if the unattended message passes through the filter before it decays from the sensory store Broadbents filter model implies that a perceptual limitation prevents people form comprehending two messages spoken at the same time Sperling sensory store, pattern recognition and STM combined to influence performance on a task Higher Cognitive Processes Artificial Intelligence: The study of how to produce computer Programs that can perform intellectually demanding tasks Argue that much of human behaviour is planned ( Miller, Galatner and Pribram) New unit called TOTE ( test; operate; test; exit) Plan: a temporarily ordered sequence of operations for carrying out some task Chomsky grammar consistent with planning Cognitions Relation to Other Fields Currently the prominent field Having an increasing impact on applied psychology Cognitive Science: the interdisciplinary attempt to studt cognitnoin through fields such as psychology, philosophy, artificial intelligence, neuroscience linguistics and anthropology Cognitive Neuroscience: The study of relation between cognitive process and brain activities Frontal Lobe planning of movement, some aspects of memory, inhibition of inappropriate behaviours; damage can interfere with memory Parietal Lobe body information and sensations Temporal Lobe hearing, advances visual processing, understanding language, recognizing complex visual patterns such as faces Occipital Lobe vision; damage results in normal pupil reflexes but no awareness or pattern perception of visual info Function Magnetic Resonance Imaging( fMRI); uses magnetic fields and computerized images to locate mental operations in the brain Position Emission Tomography(PET):diagnostic technique that ises radioactive tracers to study brain activity by measuring the amount of blood flow in different parts of the brain Event Related Potential (ERP) a diagnostic technique that uses electrodes placed on the scalp to measure the duration of brain waves during mental tasks Chapter 2: Pattern Recognition Pattern Recognition: The stage of perception during which a stimulus is identified Study of how people identify objects in their environment Used to identify if you are human online Describing Patterns 3 explanations Template Theories - Template: an unanalyzed pattern that is matched against alternative patterns by using the degrees of overlap as a measure of similarity - Identity of pattern identified by which template it overlaps with the most - Problem is that the position, orientation and size of the templates would have to be continuously adjusted - Great variability of patters; difficult to construct enough templates - Templates do not reveal how two patterns differ - Does not allow for alternative descriptions of a pattern - Patterns can be represented as unanalyzed templates - Interstimulus Interval: The amount of time between the end of a stimulus and the beginning of another stimulus - When 2 stimulus presented in identical locations the accuracy declined as the interstimulus interval lengthened suggests use of sensory store - Suggests that sensory store can be used for a rapid template match is two patters are separated by less than 300 msec and are presented in the same location Feature Theories - Allow us to describe a pattern by listing its parts - Feature Theory: describes patterns in terms of parts; or features - Convenient for describing perceptual learning - Gibsons Theory that perceptual learning occurs through the discovery of features that distinguish one pattern from another - Gibsons Criteria for Features in Uppercase Letters: 1. Features should be critical; present in some members of the set but not in others (provides contrast) 2. The identity of the features should remain unchanged under changes in brightness, size and perspective 3. Features should yield a unique pattern for each letter 4. The number of proposed features should be reasonably small - Features of letters consist primarily of different lines - Perceptual Confusion: Measures the frequency which which two patterns are mistakenly identified as each other - Some features are more important than others in accounting for confusions Distinctive Features - A feature that is present in one pattern but absent in another; aiding discrimination between the two patterns - An effective method for emphasizing a distinctive feature us to make it a different colour - When distinctive features are learned they can help reduce error - Two main benefits 1. learned features so that they could continue to differentiate letters after the distinctive features were no longer highlighted 2. enbled them to learn features wthout making many errore Faces - Feature theories can be used to represent faces - Identifying faces within a category can be difficult when we emphasize features that allow us to distinguish between categories - Have mast trouble distinguishing faces within an ethnic category that is not our own (only b/c we dont pay as much attention) - Racial differences can be eliminated through instructions - Caricature: an exaggeration of distinctive features to make a pattern more distinctive (Facilitates Recognition) Structural Theories - A limitation of feature theories is that we cannot specify how patterns are joined together - Describing how features join together is the principle of gestalt psychology - To gestalt psychologists, a pattern is more than the sum of its parts - Structural Theory: a theory that specifies how the features of a pattern are joined to other features of the pattern
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