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test1 2011

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Western University
Psychology 2011A/B
Imants Baruss

Chapter 2: Wakefulness Modern Beginnings -interest of introspection  Wilhelm Wundt: founder of experimental psych o Criticizes introspection—objective phenomena described through subjective experience o Believes in “experimental introspection” (sensation + perception)  Controlled stimulus conditions + demands of observer limited  Result: resembles ordinary perception  Brentano: inner perception + inner observation o Alternative to “experimental introspection”= inner perception (noticing mental evens without interfering with them) o Alternative to “inner perception”= inner observation (directly focusing on our inner mental life)  William James: experimentalists are boring, one of the founders of psych o Introspective observation is what we should rely on most o LOOKING into the mind + report discoveries o Retrospection: recalling previously expired memories—not ‘real’ time *get as close to real time as we can] Rise of Behaviourism—response associations to stimuli can be changed  John Watson: behaviourism, using scientific methods o book says “the reader will find no discussion of consciousness”, no reference to mental activity o Carries out investigations, presents psychology as a system [calculates input + output] X= how do you get emotion, motivation, beliefs? Result: belief consciousness is a myth, not suitable for science Computational Approach -begins once machines are developed, mind (software) -information processing system—collects information about itself based on observation, introspection doesn’t exist  Mental processes are operations on mental representations =research on thinking, language, problem-solving  Initially, consciousness fails to re-enter mainstream psych  Review of evidence on the accuracy of subjective reports concludes: Introspection not possible X= downplays aspects that can’t be conceptualized (ex. imagination) unlikely that the brain instantiates formal logical states like a computer does how can computer processing= subjective experience? we have introspection by understanding/reporting content Q: Do we know anything about the nature of our thoughts? A: the answer is less clear Introspection-Practical Applications  Basic Level: We can tell what’s happening in our minds  Computational: determine our scope of metacognition (ability to know something of our cog processes)  The role of introspection covers experimental introspection (Wundt) + introspective observation (James)  Practical: anytime we respond to a stimulus, report our experiences, fill out qnnaires, experience sampling method (pager)=introspection on how we feel  Constrained by perceptual + informational limitations o How well do ppl know themselves? 4 metaphors:  Truth Seeker-scientist  Consistency Seeker- reduce inconsistencies by selective remembering of events, reconstruction of past, distorting inconsistent, even is self-views are neg  Politician- defines, constructs favourable impressions on others to gain approval  Egoist- motivated by self-enhancement, maintain pos self image **each has different aspect, a balance of each is found in ppl o Accuracy in Studies  35%= clear self-enhancement bias  50%= accurate  15%= self-diminishing bias  Introspection becomes more confusing when we ask ppl the nature/dynamics of their minds Ex. what led us to the soltn of the puzzle? Thinking James—The Principles of Psychology 5 Characteristics of Thinking: 1. Every thought is a part of consciousness-owned by someone/the ‘self’ o Thoughts don’t float freely o For James, the ‘self’ is just a passing thought that attaches to other thoughts about ourselves o For Cog Psych: (1) physical organism (2) mental representation of the information processing system of the self 2. Thought is always changing o Once gone, no state can reoccur identically as before o Why?  constant neural changes in the brain from experience o Some neural changes don’t affect conscious + unconscious mental functioning 3. Thought is continuous *most famous, survived behaviourism o The differences in our thoughts aren’t breaks=flows like a river o The substantive + transitive elements of thinking combine into a stream o The Fringe: what the content of our thought is focused in -what’s in it?: feelings of reality -may lose the fringe (de-realization or more real than reality) 4. [Thought deals with objects], [independent of itself] o Part 1: Thought always deals with something Intentionality: direction upon an objectselfobject o Part 2: The things we think about exist outside our thoughts, real world [cornerstone of materialism] th nd  Drops 4 characteristic= sceptical of the 2 part, everything is thought 5. Thought is selective o Our mind is a data reduction system-conditioned by cultural influences o Choose to direct our attention to some parts of an object, not others Eric Klinger -Studied thinking by experience sampling method 2 types of thinking: a) Deliberate Thinking: specific content, intentionally directed twds a goal, controllability b) Spontaneous Thinking: ‘pop’ into our minds *2/3 mostly deliberate, 1/3 mostly spontaneous, 1/3 of our thoughts are more spont vs. del Thinking can be: a) Internally Focused: what’s happening in our environment b) Externally Focused: what’s happening outside our environment *1/3 of our thoughts are focused on another place, past or future Thoughts are strange on 3 dimensions: a) Fanciful vs. Realistic -fanciful=important social role expectations (things we shouldn’t do), natural laws are violated -21% of our thoughts are not possible b) Disconnected -can jump from one another c) Well-Integrated vs. Degenerated -flow without beginnings/endings, shift randomly, interweave -25% of thoughts have trance-like mentation Other Characteristics: using beeper methodology  Self-talk o Silence (25%), Statements/Running Commentaries (50%) o 2/3 of thoughts have visual imagery, 1/2 has colour + movement o 1/4 we think about others + relationships o 3% worrisome, anxiety thoughts  Emotions o 2 components of emotional experience: (1)what it’s like to have a particular emotion (2) aware during the emotion  Distinction btwn consciousness(3) + subjective consciousness(2) o Cognitive components: appraisals of emotion triggers, evaluating our situation, plan for action [consciousness2] o Suppression of thoughts to keep out of subjective consciousness(2)=physio symptoms resembling anxiety  Too many demands on our cog resources=resurfaces  Suppression=clumsy way of managing our thoughts (ex. meditation better) Daydreaming -each with a different criterion for what daydreaming is -largely ignored  Klinger o o ‘6% of time we engage in active, focused problem solving o Most of our thought is irrational, some reason o Daydreaming=mainly experiential stream o Just this defn=50% of thoughts are daydreams  James o Daydreams=spontaneous, not deliberate  Freud o Fancifulness: daydreams violate reality  Singer [pioneer of daydreaming research] o Daydreams don’t pertain to the immediate environment o Internal, not external **If the defn of daydreaming can be any of these= 70% of thoughts are daydreams **If all criteria met= 3% of thoughts are daydreams Benefits (Klinger):  Daydreaming is essential for our psychological nature—fits in w other processes  Commit to goals related to current concerns  Keeps us organized—reminds us of current concerns  Learn from them  Anticipating + rehearsing future scenarios + prepare for decision making  Assist in personal growth, creative expression  Changes our moods: relax, entertain, have fun Daydreaming Styles: 1. Positive-Constructive: frequent, vivid, playful, wishful—HAPPY -accepted, enjoyed, used for problem solving 2. Guilty-Dysphoric: bizarre, hallucinatory vividness—ambition, heroic deeds, hostility, aggression, regret -poor attentional control, anxious, distractable, dysphoric mood, easily bored -unable to keep an elaborate fantasy **Daydreaming styles are a small part of more general personality tendencies Five Factor Model:  Openness-imaginative, intelligent, curious, artistic  Conscientiousness-self control, will to achieve, dependability  Extroversion-socialable, outgoing  Agreeableness-altruistic, caring, supportive vs. jealous, hostile, indifferent  Neuroticism-poor emotional adjustment, experience distress Correlations w/ Daydreaming: -openness + positive-constructive style -neuroticism + guilty-dysphoric AND neg pole of conscientiousness [poor attn control]  Behaviour can change from daydreaming style Study: a) Positive-Intensive: pleasant, child-like, fanciful (can never exist) b) Aggressive-Heroic: about heroes, think of things they would like to do to a disliked person c) Dysphoric: unpleasant daydreams about things happening to self + family o Nonviolent TV= inc positive-intensive, dec aggressive-heroic o Violent TV= dec positive-intense, inc aggressive-heroic o Dysphoric dreaming style doesn’t correlate Imagination -little is known -usually thought of as ‘image’—can be all 4 senses  Computational Approach Defn: nonverbal mental representations that occur as if we’re perceiving something with our mind’s eye  Guided imagery [directing images in a symbolically meaningful sequence] may be used to assist our personal growth (daydreaming)  [Assagioli]-uses guided imagery in psychosynthesis o Unconscious consists of:  Subconscious-primitive drives, residue of past events  Superconscious- ethical imperatives, love, inspiration, genius o If we do something imagined, it will follow it reality  Example of Symbolic Imagery: -Imagine self in meadowsee mountain + climbreach the topsee wise being o Mountain=refinement of consciousness, reaching into a deeper part of the self o Wise being=whatever wisdom we possess o Deliberate: directing the sequence of ea. image, following instructions Spontaneous: details about the images, response to them *more research needed, little research on effectiveness, usefulness Psychoneuroimmunology  Thoughts can affect our immune system  Rat Study: o Rats given drink 30 min before injected cyclophosphamide: suppresses the immune system o When given the drink alone (no drug)= immune system still suppresses w/o the drug Why? Expectations o Generalized to humans  Human Study: o Asked to suppress thoughts= dec levels of white blood cells  (Schneider) Adherence and Neutrophils -adherence: increase + migrate in areas of infection o Study 1: recruit med students who believe they can change their immune functioning  Imagine their neutrophils were responding as if there was a crisis  Result: 60% drop in neutrophils, but not other white blood cells o Study 2: asked to keep their neutrophils in their blood stream, inc adherence  Result: inc adherence, quality of imagery ratings  (Langer): take men from nursing home to facility that looks like 1959 o Physical body follows our imagination  The power of the mind to create physiological changes is controversial Ex. guided imagery used for cancer patients Q: can we heal others? (Bengston): Study on Mice o Injected with breast cancer—100% fatality rate, 14-27 days o Treat 1 hr/day for 1 month: place hands on cages, mental healing  Mice gravitate to his left hand o Results: Tumors are blackened, ulcerated, imploded, close up  cure rate of 87.9% for 33 mice  re-inject= body rejects disease Sensory Restriction John Lilly’s Early Research Q: what will happen when we reduce sensory input as much as possible?  What: underwater breathing mask, rubber supports to hold up arms + legs w/ minimal stimulation, dark + soundproof room  Original Experience: 2 hrs tank= 8 hrs sleep in bed -many altered states experienced (wide awake to deep sleep) -fantasy seems real enough to be mistaken for real-life Disadvantages: o Different from research of sensory deprivation [feelings of anxiety, distress, restlessness] o WHY? May be the bad publicity that caused anxiety Ex. participants spend week in coffin + straps restricting movement RESULT: without a changing environment, the brain doesn’t function adequately=abnormal behaviour  Improves by injecting self with LSD  Studies of the effects of anticipated anxiety on results: o Stressful *‘emergency tray’ in view, emergency alarm button+ vs. relaxed atmosphere o Results: experimental grp dec cognitive + perceptual performance  Intellectual dullness, restlessness  X= problems in the manner which the data was collected Types of Sensory Restriction:  Flotation tank with Epson salts for relaxation  Restricted environmental simulation technique/therapy (REST) o Highly effective for habit modification o Can be alone vs. combined with other techniques 2 versions: a) Flotation REST: float on back in Epson salt water, surface of body above waterline -hard to flip over=safety -dark, quiet room, intercom to monitor -45 minutes b) Chamber REST: lie on bed in dark, soundproof room for hours + intercom to monitor -food, water, toilet Effects of Restriction  Provides relief from stressors  Think more deeply about problems + find solutions o Results: Inc health related behaviours o X= ineffective on depressed patients, neg/internal Attributional style—think too much about their problems  Dec relapse Example Study: combined REST + hypnosis o 47% good 19 months after REST vs. 4-36% hypnosis vs. 6% control grp  X= results may be due to inc suggestibility + hypnotisability of P’s during/after REST  Inc mental flexibility  Stimulus Hunger o Respond pos to info + stimulation that’s diff from the environment Ex. snake phobia= after 5 hrs in REST, dec fear of snake pics *effective in a variety of clinically relevant situations *enhanced performance in life (ex. athletic performance—6 sessions better game) Sensed Presence  Lillly=Strange, alien presences= believes he made contact with alien civilization  Feel another being is present, even if we can’t see them Ex. Charles Lindbergh senses presences—his “skull is one great eye, seeing everywhere at once”  Alien presence occurs in many alterations of consciousness Chapter 3: Sleep Nervous System  Nerve cells: process info  Spinal cordbrain stem thalamus=relay station (opens up to the cerebral cortex) o Cat touches youperipheral nerve cellsspinal cordbrain stempart of cortex that maps the sensation on handhigher levels of processingdecid
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