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Psychology 2011A/B
Imants Baruss

CHAPTER 1- Introduction • TerenceMcKenna - SittingbyariveratLaChorreraintheAmazon - Noticesamistthatsplitintotwoparts,andthenagain,atwhichpointhewaslookingatfourlensshapedcloudsofthesamesizelying inarowandthentheymergedtogetheragain - Thecloudsthengrewdarker,swirledtogetherandformedwhatappearedtobeawaterspout - Theneverythingseemedtospedupandthecloudsformedasaucer-shapedmachine,rotatingslowly,withsoftblueandorangelights - Itthenpassedoverheadandoutofsight - ItwasidenticalinappearancetotheUFOinaninfamousphotographwidelyassumedtobeapictureofavacuumcleanerend-cap - Thisoccurredafterweeksofingestingpsychedelicdrugs • Hallucinations– perceptionsthatdonotcorrespondtophysicalreality TypesofConsciousness Experiential(AKA phenomenologicalperspective) · Looking at a person’s experience (analyzation) · Also known as phenomenological perspective in that phenomena are considered as such without reification into some other way of conceptualizing them · First person perspective/experiences – introspection Cognitive · Perception, thinking, memory, decision making and creativity · Consciousness has to do w/ calculations · Knowledge of cognitive events is acquired through the observation of beh’r and rational inquiry. Physiological · Questions have been raised about connections between consciousness and subatomic aspects of the brain · QUANTUM MIND · Explanatory gaps between different kinds of consciousness – all interrelated w/ each other What is Consciousness? 4 categories 1. C1: Organisms ability to make discrimination btw stimuli from environment and to process that info and then act in a minimally goal directed manner – stopping the car a. Definition: the registration of info & acting on it in a goal-directed manner 2. BC2: Behavioural Consciousness –unable to discrimination and make a goal directed decision a. From the outside – someone else can help determine b. Definition: The explicit knowledge of one’s situation, mental states and actions. 3. SC2: Subjective Consciousness – content of your experiential stream – only you can tell, no one else can tell a. From the inside – hunger an only be determined by oneself b. The stream of thoughts, feels, & sensations that one has for oneself 4. C3: Subjectiveness of experience of the subject a. Qualia is the feeling something is going on b. Sense of existence of the subject of mental acts What is an altered state of consciousness? · A qualitative alteration in the overall pattern of mental functioning such that the experiencer feels his consciousness is radically different from the way it functions ordinarily o Changes to the ordinary waking state Hallucinations: perceptions that do not correspond to physical reality. Correlations of Beliefs About Reality with Various Variables · Materialism o Physicalism determinism, physical monism, science, none, information, emergent property, intentionality, by product of the physical world. · Conservative Transcendence o Religiosity meaning, dualism, hermeneutics, traditional, subjective, evidence of spirit, gives meaning, important · Extraordinary Transcendence o Extraordinary experiences, extraordinary beliefs, inner growth, mental monism, paranormal, own beliefs, altered states, ultimate reality, key to growth, all there is Material vs. Transcendent Beliefs Materialist – reality is entirely physical in nature · World is a machine that functions in a determined manner, phenomena results from physical processes (info- processing system) Dualists – physical and transcendent aspects · Conservative transcendence – emphasize the subjective, experiential aspects of consciousness & believes that it gives meaning to reality and provides evidence of a spiritual dimension Extraordinary Transcendent · Physical world is a byproduct of consciousness · Unusual experiences and to emphasize altered states of consciousness Physicalists · Everything is physical in whatever way physicist will eventually determine that to be The Nature of Science · Essence, methodology, world view o Essence (IA – Accumulating, A- Gaining knowledge) o Methodology (IA – Rigid, A – Flexible) o World View (IA – Materialism, A- Based on empirical results) · Two Modes of Practice o Inauthentic  Scientism  resembles the practice of a religious faith · Follows the evidence · Is materialistic · Drives the kind of data that can be collected  Methodology  consists of an idealized set of procedures based on the use of the sensory modalities for making systematic observations of objective events and drawing conclusions from the observations using one’s rational faculties  -> Nothing is thought to exist in nature that cannot in principle be explained by its application. o Authentic  Acquisition of knowledge for someone  Seeks to deepen understanding by open-ended investigation and forms theories on the basis of the results of that data  Includes the collection of info, use of specific traditional scientific methods and the development of materialist theories as explanations for one’s data Ganzfield Procedures · Used to demonstrate the existence of ESP o Seeking to minimizer the somatic and sensory noise in the body o Producing a visually and acoustically “homogenous perceptual environment”  Most commonly called the sixth sense Presentience · Dick Bierman – showed pictures (had 3 ppl reacting up to 3 secs before picture presented) · Different levels of arousal for erotic vs. gross violent · Darryl Bem – see if a person can send a message from one room to the other (sender, receiver) o 14 min relax period to rid noise in body, 30 min of GS, 160 targets (20 sets of 4 still) (20 sets of 4 dynamic) – dynamic targets were more effective than static ones CHAPTER 2–Wakefulness Introspection– lookingintoourmindandreportingwhatwetherediscover(WilliamJames) ModernBeginnings · Wilhelm Wundt – recognized that data of science about objective phenomena was derived from experience of scientists, rejected notion that scientists could understand experience itself through the unaided self observation of others o Are you able to split consciousness · Experimental Introspection – stimulus conditions were so controlled, and demands of observer were so limited that process of observation can resemble external ordinary perception · Inner perception – discrete noticing of what was happening to mental events as they occurred w/out interfering with them (perceiving indirectly) · Inner observation – direct focusing on one’s inner mental life · Retrospection – a person examines her memory of that which has previously transpired (memory?) Hilgard and the Computational Approach · New way of thinking about the psyche · Brought new interest in memory, language, prob solve, etc · Can’t use this approach with emotions – unable to distinguish emotion w/ calculations · Presence of explanatory gaps between cog, psych, physio and exper perspectives Practical Applications Metacognition – ability to know something about out OWN cognitive processes Experience Sampling Method – wear a pager, and when it goes off, the person has to write down exactly what their mental state is at the moment (self report booklet) Four Metaphors · Scientist – truth seeker, accurate knowledge · Consistency Seeker – distorting inconsistent info · Politician – interaction w/ others & want to gain approval · Egoist – self enhancement and want to adopt cog/interpersonal strategies to get a + self image Thinking The Stream of Consciousness by William James 1. Every thought is part of a personal consciousness – they are personally owned by someone 2. Thought is always changing – no state once gone, can recur and be identical to be 3. Thought is sensibly continuous – follow a time gap feel as though they belong together with those that preceed it a. Is nothing jointed, it flows like a stream b. Substantive – an object about which one thinks c. Transitive – “fringe of relations” – substantive part is embedded i. In altered states, one’s FOR (feelings of knowing) are increased, feel more stronger than normal (NDE) 4. Thought deals w/ objects independent of itself – Intentionality – quality of about ness where mental phenomena exhibits the property of having a direction on an object 5. What we think appears to have an existence independent of out thoughts themselves a. Repetitive presence of objects is not enough to prove the existence of an objective reality 6. Thought is discriminative – interest in some parts, exclusion of others and welcomes and rejects Dimensions of Thinking- Eric Klinger 1. Deliberate vs. Spontaneous a. Deliberate – consists of specific content that is intentionally direction toward the attainment of certain goals i. Controllability – sense of volition, checked against feedback concerning its effects, evaluate according to its effectiveness in advancing particular goals and protected form drift/distraction b. Spontaneous – thoughts that just pop into our minds 2. Externally & Internally Focused a. Externally – paying attention to what is going on in the environment around us b. Internally – focused on the thoughts away from what is happening in the environment 3. Strangeness along the three dimensions a. Fanciful vs. Realistic i. Fanciful – important social role expectations/ current natural laws are violated b. Continuous vs. Disconnected i. Disconnected – thoughts jumping from 1 to the other c. Well integrative vs. Degenerated i. Degenerated – images often flow w/o respect to beginnings of endings, shifts in the middle * only 6% of the time are we actually thinking 4. Emotions a. Part of our multidimensional subjective experiences either accompanying/triggering thoughts 5. Thought Suppression a. Able to keep unwanted thoughts outside of our awareness b. They have disappeared but they will surface again when we cease to try to suppress them Daydreaming * We daydream 50% of the time, it reminds us of our current concerns (concerns about goals that we set for ourselves) · Substantial part of our experiential stream · Thoughts are spontaneous rather than deliberate (William James) · Thoughts that violated the rules normally imposed on us by reality (Sigmond Freud) · Internally focused rather than externally focused thoughts (Jerome Singer_) – pioneer of modern daydreaming · Klinger’s – integral part of our psychological nature and hence fits w/ brain processes, emotions, motives, actions and more deliberate and realistic thoughts · Organizes what thoughts and experiences are the most important to us – channeling of info about ourselves to ourselves Super Conscious – embody wisdom, appreciate beauty (discovered through guided imagery) Sub Conscious – stupider part of oneself Daydreaming Styles 1. Positive Constructive Daydreaming a. Frequent, vivid, playful and wish-fulfilling fantasizing that are accepted, enjoyed and used for prob solving 2. Guilt-Dysphoric Daydreaming a. Tend to repeat number of themes of somewhat bizarre nature often emerging with a near hallucinatory vividness that have to do with fear, failure, regrets and hostility 3. Poor Attentional Control a. Difficulty concentration and are anxious, distractible, easily bored and unable to sustain an elaborate fantasy Five Factors Model of Personality · Extroversion – sociable, livery, outgoing · Agreeableness - humane, altruistic, caring, nurturing, emotional supportive · Conscientiousness – degree of self control, will to achieve and dependability · Neuroticism – psychological distress in everyday life · Openness – imaginative, intelligent, curious, artistic Imagination · Gives rise to mental imagery, however this aspect can be conceptualized · Imagery- expression of non-verbal mental representations that occur as if one were metaphorically perceiving something w. one’s eye · Guided Imagery – process of actively directing images in a symbolically meaningful sequence – helps to harness out daydreams for creative expression, problem solving and personal growth Psychoneuroimmunology · Appears our thoughts can have effects on our immune system · John Schneider Neutrophils Study- examined the effects of guided imagery on the immune system o Shown a lecture about neutrophils o Discovered a 60% drop in # of neutrophils, but not for any other kind of blood cells Bill Bengston - 33 mice injected with a breast cancer - Mice with 100% fatality 14-27 days - Bengston treated mice 1 hour per day for 1 month - Treatment consists of placing hangs on cages and doing mental things - Tumors became blackened, ulcerated, imploded, closed. - Cured rate of 87.9% for 33 mice. Sensory Restriction Early Research – John Lily · Want to know if sensory input was reduced as much as possible · If you shut off all sources – will you fall asleep · Mask, arm and leg support and immersed self in a talk filled w/ tap water and added Epson salts– dark soundproof room o Relaxation and rest on a full night sleep – same feeling w/ few hours Types of Sensory Restriction 1. Flotation Rest (45 mins) a. Floats on back in pool/tank filled w/ enough Epson salts so face/body above waterline (dark quiet room w/ intercom) 2. Chamber Rest (~24hours) a. Lies on bed in dark room w/ reduced sounds (connected to intercom and monitoring) Effects of Sensory Restriction · Think more deeply than usual o Increase exercise in daily habits, elimination unhealthy eating, increase family relationships o May bring back self deprecating thoughts about their woes o May increase athletic performance · Stimulus Hunger – responding positively to info or stimulation that breaks the sameness of the environment (phobia) Sensed Presences · Feeling of another being present when no other is actually present (social isolation, solitary sailing, polar exploration) CHAPTER 3–Sleep SleepPhysiologyandBehaviour TheBrain– NervousSystem · Thalamus is the relay system o There are actually 2 thalami (one on each side of the brain) · The brain is made up of nerve cells that are associated w/ process of information · 1960s: If you cut the connections between the hemispheres they found: right side= rational, left side= intuitive o Proven to be false - Glial cells (stick themselves around the axon) are also found to be able to retrieve information, not just nerve cells. · Extending from the brain is the spinal cord w/ is made up of the nerve cells as well · Spinal cord then becomes the brainstem which is attached to the thalamus which in turn opens up into the multi folded cerebral cortex that wraps around the lower part o the brain · Brain is bilaterally symmetrical  whatever is on the R is similar to the L · Right and left hemisphere are connected by a number of bundles called nerve cells · Dendrites are at the receiving end of the neuron · Axon transmits the messages along changing the electrical potentials across the cell’s walls created electrochemical processes · Signal is a change in the potential energy across the cell in mili Volts. · Prefrontal Lobe: self-management (in the brain and how you behave) · Communication is done through NT’s from the axon to the dendrites of the next cells o Attaching onto the receptor sites on the dendrites or cells bodies o Can either inhibit or enhance a subsequent cells ability to send a message · Synaptic cleft – space between the end of one axon and the beginning of the next axon · Receptor sites – macromolecules that lock in the signals (key and lock) o Opening the lock corresponds on creating a change in the action potential · Spontaneous electrochemical activity goes one all the time, and not all the activity is excitatory · Pacemakers in the brain synchronize the electrochemical activity of other groups of nerve cells Polysomnograph · Electrodes on the head of a person can pick up changes in electrical activity of groups of cells (called layer 4) · Electrical potential over time look like waves and can be recorded using EEG – primary instrument that has been used for defining the physiological changes associated w/ sleep  measures changes in electrical potential · BETA - >13 cycles/sec · ALPHA – 8-12 cycles/sec · THETA – 4-7 cycles/sec · DELTA – <4 cycles/sec o Shorter more rapid waves tend to be of lesser amplitude where long waves of lower frequencies tend to be of greater amplitude · Electroculography – used for detecting movements through electrodes taped close to the eye · Electromyography – measures muscle tensions through electrodes placed beneath the chin Sleep Stages · During wave state – EEG beta activity w/ some intermixed alpha activity and occasional theta o EOG shows rapid eye movements and eye blinks and the EMG indicated high levels of muscle activity · Onset of sleep (drowsy) is indicated by the attenuation of alpha and the predominance of theta · STAGE 1 sleep has relatively low voltage, mixed frequency EEG o Slow often – asynchronous eye movements occur during the transition from wakefulness to stage one sleep, their onset usually preceding the beginning of sleep by 1 or 2 minutes o No discrete change in muscle tension at the point of transition to sleep o Lasts for 1- 7 minutes before giving way to stage 2 sleep which is characterized by the presence of K complexes and sleep spindles against frequencies in the theta range o Being asleep is characterized by the presence of theta waves o Vertex shaped waves · STAGE 2 sleep has the presence of K complexes and sleep spindles o K COMPLEX – waveform lasting for at least 0.5 seconds that consists of a sharp negative component followed by a positive slow wave of smaller amplitude  About one to three k complexes/min would occur in stage 2 in young adults o SLEEP SPINDLES – brain wave of about 12 to 14 cps in frequency lasting 0.5 to 1.5 seconds  About three to eight spindles per minute would occur during stage 2 sleep o Slow eye movement may infrequently and only very briefly persist after the appearance of sleep spindles and K complexes o Can last for about 10 -20 minutes o More of the large waves become present (delta wave)  When delta waves occupy >20% of sleep record, we say the sleeper is in STAGE 3 · STAGE 3 - > 20% delta waves o SLOW WAVE SLEEP w/ Stage 4; children (because they are growing), less likely in adults until 60. · STAGE 4 - > 50% delta waves o SLOW WAVE SLEEP w/ Stage 3; children (because they are growing), less likely in adults until 60. · STAGE ¾ o K complexes/sleep spindles occur here, however hard to differentiate between delta activity o SWS = NO eye movement & muscles tension is present at low levels o 80 mins from sleep onset – transition into another sleep stage  Delta declines and SAW TOOTH WAVES appear, intermittently usually lasting 1 to 5 seconds  Changes in EEG + EOG and EMG changes · PHASIC REM SLEEP – muscle twitching w/ burst of eye movements · TONIC REM SLEEP – few or non eye movements/twitches · REM SLEEP CYCLES o First lasts for few mins to 15 mins o Eye movements present, more rapid then when falling asleep. o Cycling REM and NREM repeated throughout a night sleep (1 cycle averaging 70-100 mins) o Increases to 9-120 mins in 2 /later cycles (~4-6 cycles of REM/NREM / night) o During NREM, nothing gets past the thalamus · SLEEP LATENCY – time it takes to fall asleep · SLEEP EFFICIENCY – ratio of time asleep to time lying in bed · SLEEP CONTINUITY – balance of sleep and wakefulness during a night of sleep (Prolactin = soothing hormone) · You tend to have longer REM periods as the night goes on, and eventually you only alternate from REM to stage 2 · REM helps you consolidate memories; Non-REM restores the physical body. · Wakefulness - <5% of night o Stage 1 – 2-5% o Stage 2 – 45-55% o Stage 3 – 3-8% o Stage 4 – 10-15% o REM – 20-25% · SWS maximal in young children & decreases w/ age, SWS is maximized for women vs. men · CIRCADIAN RHYTHMS – keeps awake while awake, keeps asleep while sleeping Arousal · Easiest to wake someone in stage 1 sleep, hardest at stage 4 · Impossible to wake children from SWS in first night cycle · Meaningful stimuli is more effective in evoking K complexes and sleep spindles · NREM = decrease NT’s fall · REM = levels of acetylcholine have to increase o SSRI’s – reuptake inhibitors of serotonin (good levels of serotonin = good psychological health) o Low levels of serotonin = depression/anxiety · COMA = awareness of self/environment is lost and there is no meaningful response to stimulus or inner needs o No C1 or BC2 and SC2 and C3 cant be tested · AKINETIC MUTISM = wakefulness, condition maintain an alert appearance but do not exhibit signs of awareness or cognition Dreaming · REM – 74% reported detailed dreams involved visual imagery · NREM – 9% reported such dreams w/ two others reported having had the feeling of having dreamed but w/ the inability to recollect any detail of the dream · REM sleep dream reports were significantly longer than NREM sleep reports · REM sleep dreams were longer, had more people and were having undefined characters such as groups of people and contained more emotion than SWS Purpose of Sleep Sleep Needs · Decrease in cognitive performance occurs with sleep deprivation · After 48-64 hours, sleep deprivations makes it impossible to overcome poor task performance · Mood appears to be more strongly affected than cognitive ability which in turn appears to be more strongly affected than motor ability o Can result in emotional instability · Natural tendency to enter REM sleep increase w/ REM sleep deprivation so that the number of awakening has to increase every night of the study to maintain the deprivation Explanation for Sleep · Biological restorative function · SWS is associated w/ secretion of growth hormone o High during children peak development years and declines w/ advancing age st o 1 3 cycles is coresleep - necessaryforrestorativeofthebrain o Remainderofsleepcycleisoptimalsleep– occupyunproductivehoursofthenight o Synapsesarestrengthenedandthoseactivatedduringpreviouswaking o Facilitateretentionoflearningevenif theactualneuronalprocessbywhichthatoccursarenotknown o Weareunlikelytorememberthefewminutesbeforewefallasleep TheNeuralMechanismsofSleep · REM sleep there is a 4% increase in blood flow to the associative visual areas and 5-9% decrease in blood flow in low front cortical areas o Involved in management of emotional/motivation, suppression of interference from int/ext stimuli & temp org of beh’r/cognition o Frequent temporal changes, may frequent temporal changes, may reflect the relatively decreased functioning of the low cort areas · NREM sleep the transmission of sensory info is strongly reduced by the thalamus · NADREN and SERO decrease during NREM sleep to min values for REM sleep in groups of synapses associated w/ arousal Drugs on Sleep · Amphetamines increase the effectiveness of noradrenaline and serotonin o Pushes NT’s into the synapse (stay awake drugs) o Associated with arousal and sleepiness o Sleep latency is increased, sleep continuity is worse and more TBM, total sleep reduces and decrease in SWS and REM sleep o Excessive daytime sleepiness, night time sleep is prolonged · Cocaine – slows down reuptake of noradrenalin and increases activity and produces insomnia followed by excessive sleep withdrawal · Opiods – stimulate the opiate receptors and increasing neurotransmitter dopamine that associated w/ experience of pleasure o Reduce total sleep time/REM sleep, then tolerance develops and REM suppressing effects to morphine are lost w/in a week o Initial REM sleep suppressing effects of morphine may result in part from inhibition of ACTL in brain mech regulating REM sleep · Caffeine – cause insomnia by blocking action of adenosine which may function as sleep promoting substance in brain o Take longer to fall asleep, increase WFN and decrease SWS · Alcohol – gamma amino butric acid (GABA) o Anti- anxiety drug (knocks out the brain) o Decreases length of time takes to fall asleep, increases NREM sleep and decrease REM sleep in early night o Longer sleep latencies, poor sleep efficiencies and decreased total sleep, SWS and REM sleep · Hypnotics – can improve sleep · SSRI’s (Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor) o Used in treatment of depression, block reuptake of serotonin so that it cannot be taken back into the cell o Remains in synapse longer, and must decrease during sleep for acetyl cholinergic pathways associated w/ REM sleep to become activated o SSRI’s worsen sleep, increase wakefulness and decrease total sleep time · Fluoxetine o Increase eye movements and muscle tone in all sleep stages o Increase number of eye movements, increase size of eye movements, Increase muscle tension · Periodic Limb Movement Disorder - > 5 periodic limb movement an hour for each hour of sleep Sleep Disorders · Abnormalities in sleep wave generating or timing mechanisms · Dysomnias – abnormalities in amount, quality or timing of sleep o Insomnia, narcolepsy, breathing related sleep disorder · Parasomnias – abnormal behave or physiological events occurring in association w/ spec sleep cycle or stages o Nightmare disorders, sleep terror disorder, sleepwalking disorder Dysomnias · Narcolepsy – oldest known sleep disorder, irrestible, uncontrollable sleep attacks o They don’t go into non-REM sleep first, they go straight into REM sleep. o There is no drowsiness. o Cataplexy – 3rdsymptoms of narcolepsy.  Bilateral muscle weakness – slight buckling of knees to a complete loss of muscle tone leading to total body collapse  Brought on by emotions, laughter, anger, stress, fatigue, or heavy meals (few secs to 30 mins),  Go directly into REM rather than NREM  The person that falls into REM without being asleep o Sleep Paralysis – partial/total; partial lasting few secs or minutes  40-50% of people have experiences these before (increase in narcolepsy patients) o Hypna gogic– vividimagesthatoccuronfallingasleep o Hypnopomic- Vividimageswhentheyawake  Auditioryorkinesthetic o Bothdrug/behavetreatmentshavebeenused  Drug:stimulantslikeAMPHET tooffsetdaytimesleepinessandmedssuchasfluxotinetocounteractmuscleatonia · Sleep Apnea – breathing related sleep disorder – cannot sleep and breath at the same time o Poor nights sleep, and daytime sleepiness o When person falls asleep, muscles relax and airways are blocked o Loud snores, brief gasps and episodes of silence o Short-term memory is effective by drowsiness. You can’t remember anything that happens 3 minutes before you fall asleep. o Deprived of stage 3 & 4 as well as REM sleep o There will be a REM rebound in stage 3 & 4 · Insomnia – difficulty falling asleep, nighttime awakenings and early morning awakenings o Most common sleep compliant, sleeping pills treat for this o Sleep State Misperception – dreaming all night that one is awake, or trying to fall asleep o Sleep Hygiene – reg bedtimes, quiet/dark room w/ min interruptions, clocks turned away o Psychological Insomnia – can’t sleep through stressful period Parasomnias · Rep nightmares in 2 ndhalf of night during REM sleep and cause distress or occupational/social disruption · NREM version of nightmares – sleep terrors (sitting up during sleep, emitting piercing cry, and showing beh’r features of acute terror 30secs – 5 min – usually begins in SWS) · Various degress of beh’r activity w/ incomplete arousal from SWS o Confusional Arousal – confused on awakening from w/ but w/out occurrence of any expression of a terror or leaving bed · Sleep Walking – quiet motor activity – sitting up in bed, looking around w/ blank expression o Generally more clumsy, common in young children (15-30% of kids experiencing 1 episode of sleep walking) o Won’t happen in REM but will in stage 3 & 4 o Heritable – 80% of sleepwalkers have a family history of either sleep walkers or night terrors · Kenneth Park Trial – asleep while he murdered his family members o Family history of parasomnias CHAPTER 4 ­ DREAMS Dreams The study of dreams is known as ONEIROLOGY ­Subdivided into dream analysis and dream interpretation ­Dream analysisis concerned with the manner in which social psychology realities such as cultural values are reflected in dreams ­Dream interpretation concerned with the meaning of dreams ­Lucid dreams challenge our notions of what it means to be asleep ­Precognitive dreams challenge our notions of intentional agency and time Dream Theories Three categories of physiological, cognitive, psychoanalytic and Jungian theories Physiological Theories ­18  and 19  centuries had theories that dreams were merely meaningless random expressions of physiological activity during sleep and do not  mean anything ­Activation­ synthesis hypothesis proposed by Allan Hobson and Robert McCarley in 1977 Two components to the dream process, one activation, and two is synthesis Activation is a result of the activity of the brainstem mechanisms during REM sleep, the brain becomes activated, sensory impressions  are reduces and motor movements inhibited Synthesis is when the brain injects meaning into random signals by constructing dreams from images retrieved from memory Hobson says that dreams have five cardinal characteristics: Emotions, illogical content, apparent sensory impressions, uncritical acceptance of dream events, and difficulty in being  remembered ­Excitation of the brain leads to stochastic resonance, a condition in which excitation “keeps the system in motion so that it can effectively follow  “inherently natural patterns of activity” without getting stuck ­During REM sleep the self­organizing brain is not constrained by sensory input so that the stochastic resonance reveals the natural contours of  cortical activity shaped by the emotional and cognitive influences present at each moment ­Abrupt alteration in dream experiences might result from shifts in the patterns of activity expected in a self­organizing system under conditions  of continuous excitation Something that shapes the dreams into meaningful events Cognitive Theories ­David Foulkes ­Posed a cognitive model instead ­Dreaming is to be understood as thinking, and hence is not unrelated to what happens during waking, particularly during daydreaming ­According Foulkes what gets activated while asleep is memory ­Unlike typical waking memory, its activation during dreaming is diffused rather than directed ­The insistences and widespread occurrence of the activated memories calls up the interpretive machinery of the dream production system, an  unconscious process that works by using the memory of the actual characteristics of life experiences to stimulate waking experiences ­Foulkes says there is no meaningful plan underlying the construction of particular dream imagery or of its narrative sequence      ­Dreams do not mean anything, they are productions of a computational system that could revel something of the      character of the  person ­Clara Hill ­Doesn’t view that dreams are meaningless      ­Proposed a cognitive­ experiential theory ­Dreams are considered to be meaningful       =During REM sleep there is a nonconscious on the effort on the part of the dreamer to incorporate waking events into the cognitive  framework used for making sense of reality that is already stored in the memory ­This occurs by weaving together waking life events with memories from the past into a story ­Problems occur when there are waking events, such as traumatic events, for which the existing cognitive framework is inadequate, thereby  giving rise to recurrent dreams or nightmares.  Psychoanalytic Theory ­1900 Freud’s The Interpretation of Dreams Dreams do really possess a meaning ­He insisted that all dreams are considered the result of wish fulfillment even when they do not appear to be ­Every dream had no only a MANIFEST content (which is just the apparent content of the dream) and a LATENT content (which is what the  dream is really about) ­What our dreams are really about according to Freud is our repressed wishes, he believed to be infantile in origin and usually sexual in nature ­These disturbing feelings are repressed from entering our dreams during sleep by part of our psyche that Freud calls the censor ­The impulses cleverly disguise themselves through a process which Freud calls the “dream work” Dream work is a process where the impulses are able to sneak by the censor and appear in symbolic form as manifest content ­The task of dream interpretation is to proceed backward to identify the symbols of the manifest content and to translate them into the latent  content of the actual dream thoughts Jungian Theory ­Carl Jung ­Developed four­part structure similar to that of a drama can be perceived Such dramas begin with an EXPOSITION that sets the place, introduced the characters and sometimes states the time The exposition is followed by a DEVELOPMENT of the plot in which the situation is somehow becoming complicated and a definite  tension develops because one does not know what will happen. CULMINATION whereby something decisive happens or something changes completely. SOLUTION or RESULT produced by the dream work, which is that the same time as a final situation and the solution sought by the  dreamer ­Dream images are symbolic. They are symbolic, not in the Fraudian sense of admitting a direct translation of one meaning into another, such as  a tree being a penis and a cave being a vagina and conscious ­ The symbol is the best way to talk about the psyche. The psyche is not just literal/verbal/rational; the psyche has deep parts, meaning,  mythology, and narratives of sorts. We draw things from a collect unconscious.  ­Dreams interpretations depends on the ability to find meaningful parallel ideas to the symbols found in dreams ­For Jung, dreams arise from the unconscious to compensate the conscious attitude of a person for the sake of providing balance to the  personality ­There are similarities with delusions and hallucinations of schizophrenic patients had not only to one another but also to myth and fairy tales  derived from peoples all over the world ­Universal substratum of the mind underlying human experience and behaviour, which he called the collective unconscious ­The essential psychic characteristics of the collective unconscious that distinguish us as human beings He called archetypes and could give rise to similar thoughts, images, and feelings in people, irrespective of their class, creed, race,  geographical location or historical epoch Archetypes surface as symbols in culturally shaped forms in myths, legends, and fairy tales as well as in dreams Example of archetypes is cycle of life and death, polarities (up and down, black and white, and male and female) Dream Content ­A practical approach to dream interpretation, and indicate how dreams could possibly be used for solving the problem Stimulus Incorporation in Dreams ­Dreams collected in a sleep lab ­Those dreams had at least some incorporation of the lab situation in them  ­Most frequently the experimental situation showed up in individual dream scenes and use dream experiments as a major theme ­ We dream about what was happening to us before we fall asleep (pg. 87) ­Early studies demonstrating that pre sleep thoughts about desired personality characteristic would show up in dreams could not be replicated in  some subsequent similar studies ­Some common everyday activities such as reading, writing, and counting are seldom incorporated into dreams ­Stimuli in dreams are usually indirect rather than direct.  ­There is some evidence that dreams from NREM sleep contain more day residue than dreams from REM sleep And as the night progresses and REM sleep increases, dreams refer to events further in the past of the dreamer’s life ­One third to more than one half of individuals who have experienced traumatic events end up with post­traumatic stress disorder ­ Dream Architect structures something and places it into your dreams (with exception to traumatic events) ­Most common symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder are nightmares and recurrent dreams ­At first the dreams are fairly close to a literal re­enactment of the trauma, sometimes with the twist that an additional horror, averted in real life, if  added to the dream re­enactment ­Eventually the trauma is portrayed more symbolically and interwoven with concerned from the dreamer’s daily life ­Dreams being one of the modes in which these memories first returned ­Dream content is usually more continuous with waking content than compensatory Hypnagogic Imagery ­Andreas Mavromatis ­Hypnagogia collectively refers to both the states in which hypnagogic and hypnopompic imagery occur ­One technique consists of researchers sitting upright in a chair and when she is drowsy and paying attention to her mental events, as she  enters sleep her head starts to fall over and she wakes up at which times she records her observations, she would establish an observational  intern to direct observation to specific features of interest as she falls asleep For instance she may have an observational intent to pay attention to the colours of the image Faces seem to be particularly prevalent among adults ­Most visual hypnagogic images appear to be external to the viewers, vivid, sharp and detailed ­For some people hypnagogic images have evoked “feelings of heightened reality” ­Auditory phenomena can also occur ­ Auto­symbolic: symbolic representation of what you were just thinking or what just happened to you ­There can also be olfactory, gustatory, or somatic sensations such as a sense of falling ­Hypnagogic imagery is auto­symbolic in the sense that the images that occur during the hypngogic state may be symbolic representations of  immediately preceding thought of ones mental condition in the hypnagogic state or of somatic sensations Hypnopompic Imagery ­Hypnopompic images appear to be continuations of dream imagery into the waking state ­In other cases however images appear to be discontinuous with dreams ­Hypnopompic images are those in which a person receives a warning or finds a solution to a problem Meaningfulness of Dreams ­Assumption is made that all mental events, including perception, emotions, and consciousness, are by products of formal classical logical  processes ­But classical logic is not the only kind of logic that exists nor is it likely to be the correct logic of the mind ­Let us use the term intuition to refer to the understanding of poetry, music, and apparent nonconscious communication, without commitment to  any specific notions of what intuition may turn out to be ­Freud, Jung, and Assagioli unconscious material can become conscious whenever we relax our rational grip on our experiences ­ Irruption could occur through accidental occurrences, such as inadvertently saying something you didn’t plan, responding to  ambiguous stimulus and dreams ­The problem is that unconscious material is often found in symbolic form ­Freud, such symbols were to be translated into unconscious wishes ­Jung, symbols had depth of meaning that reveals what it was that we needed to become whole ­Assagioli, symbols were tools that allowed us to understand and work with psychological realities (including the superconscious) ­Dreaming provides an opportunity for the emergence of another, more intuitive mode of knowing – one that functions through the use of  symbols Practical Dream Interpretation ­Helpful to review dreams immediately on awakening, before moving, better able to remember them ­Record a dream with different dimensions, like characters, settings, events, and mood ­There are two levels of associations  personal and cultural ­ Personal are unique to each person (i.e. scoring in hockey means getting a publication) ­ We share many cultural associations (house usually represents personality, events that occur in the house could symbolize the  occurrence of psychological events) ­Rather than just seeking to determine the meaning of a dream, one can use the images in the dream as a way of creating changes in oneself Using Dreams for Solving Problems ­Dreams have sometimes been the apparent source of creative production ­Insights from a dream may require the interpretation of symbols ­ By keeping track of symbols from 1 dream to another, meanings can gradually be established Lucid Dreaming ­There are three such dimensions that are particularly relevant with dream experiences ­Discrimination  degree to which a person recognizes the state in which she finds herself ­Control  degree to which a person has control over the events occurring within her experience ­Sense of reality  degree to which experiences that are occurring for a person to seem to be real Related to consciousness 3 Characteristics of Lucid Dreams ­Number of differences between waking and dreaming have been noted, including the lack of critical reflection which dreaming, so that the  dreamer fails to realize that she is dreaming in spite of various absurdities that could be present in her dreams  ­Some cases, the dreamer is aware of her actual situation – that she is dreaming ­ She may also be more likely to act deliberately and to feel that what is happening is as real as waking experience ­Dreams which such qualities are known as lucid dreams – dreams in which one knows that one is dreaming (LaBerge) ­Lucid dreaming’s a skill that can be learned w/ a variety of techniques available for including lucidity ­They’re more auditory & kinesthetic sensations as well as a greater sense of control in lucid dreams ­Lucid dreams has significantly higher levels of control, more positive emotions, and higher levels of visual vividness, clarity of thinking, physical  activity, and changes in scene ­Development of lucid dreaming leads to enriched dream experience ­Stephen LaBerg found that some dreamers which, when asleep, can indicate the onset of lucidity with eye movements and fist clenches This could be observed on a polysomnograph in a sleep lab ­A comparison of physiological date for 5 minutes before and 5 minutes after following the initiation of lucidity 30 seconds before and after reveal highly significant increases in physiological activation during this time, indicating that the onset of  lucid dreaming occurs during phasic REM sleep In other studies they have shown that lucid dreaming is more likely to occur during later than earlier REM sleep periods ­ Brain teasers: #1: which two words in the English language begin and edn with the letters “he”?  ­ with exception to the words “he” and “hehe”                             #2: The numbers 8,5,4,9,1,7,6,3,2 form a sequence. How are these numbers ordered?  Lucid Dream Induction ­ A dream in which you can identify that you’re dreaming.  ­Two ways that a person can try to induce lucid dreams ­ She can try to add dreaming while she is awake ­ Or add wakefulness while she is dreaming ­ She can seek to retain continuity of consciousness while falling or asleep or she can seek to become aware while dreaming that she is  dreaming ­One way of retaining consciousness while falling asleep is to pay attention to the hypnagogic imagery that accompanies sleep onset ­Dream initiated lucid dreams are more frequent than wake initiated than lucid dreams ­One technique to remember is to notice events in dreams that could no occur during the waking state and then make the critical judgment that  such inconsistencies indicate that one is dreaming  ­A person can in fact keep track of events in her dreams that are contrary to ordinary physical reality ­ LaBerge has called this “dream signs” ­ And look for these in subsequent dreams ­ Example floating or flying ­Because pre sleep thought and stimuli can carry over into dreams, appropriate pre sleep mentation should increase the probability of lucid  dreaming ­Modified mnemonic method for the induction of lucid dreams ­ Two activities to be done as one is falling asleep, first a person is to concentrate single­mindedly on her intention to remember to  recognize that she is dreaming and to try and feel that she really means it. Second to image herself back in a recent dream, with the  difference that she imagines herself recognizing that it is a dream ­ The recalled dream is to be examined critically for dream signs ­ These two activities are to be repeated in such a way that the last thing in her mind before falling asleep is her intention to become  lucid in her next dream ­ Two requirements for learning this technique are high motivation and ability to recall at least two or three dreams per night ­Nightmares can induce lucidity ­ Initiated in the phasic part of REM sleep.  ­ People in lucid dreams estimate time in the same way as you do when you’re awake.  ­Events in dreams can be so terrifying that only way for a person to deal with them is to realize that she is dreaming ­Once lucid, she may be able to exercise some degree of control, although less control has been reported in nightmare induced lucid dreams ­Threshold for perceiving external stimuli is increased in sleep; sensations can sometimes still occur and be incorporated ­LaBerg developed devices that can present cues to the sleeper while she is dreaming Example “DreamLight” – detects eye movements and in turn flashes light while she is in REM sleep 80% of the time the light takes on aspects of the dream work becoming woven into the fabrics of the dream ­A dream in which a dreamer has raised the question of whether or not she is dreaming without drawing on the correct conclusion is called PRE  LUCID dreaming ­When we are awake we almost never doubt whether we are awake or not, so if we find ourselves questioning it, we probably are dreaming Implications of Lucid Dreaming ­Lucid dreaming offers an opportunity for deliberate wish fulfillment ­Lucidity allows dreaming to become an opportunity to develop adaptive behaviours for waking life more generally ­Also seen that non lucid dreams have been used as a source of insight for problem solving ­Lucid dreaming can possibly be used even more effectively in creative endeavours ­Lucid dreaming is an experiential and physiological reality Precognitive Dreams (Dreams in the Future) ­They can be sources of symbolic meaning, solutions to problems, venues for fantastic adventures in full awareness, and an impetus for re­ examining the nature of waking reality ­Precognitive dreams are dreaming in which there are meaningful coincidences between dream contents and actual future events CHAPTER 5 ­ HYPNOSIS Hypnosis ­Similarities between sleep and hypnosis ­Hypnosis is derived from the Greek work for sleep Hypnotic Phenomena Hypnotic Induction ­Hypnosis starts with an INDUCTION ­A hypnotist speaks while a person being hypnotized, called a hypnotic subject listens ­A hypnotic session ends with the hypnotist indicating to the individual that the session is over  ­There are many variations of the hypnotic induction ­Can be done individually or in groups ­The induction may be done in person or previously recorded and played on a cassette recorder ­Self – hypnosis is possible – person listens to a tape and induction or actively plays the role of both the hypnotist and subject ­An induction can be leisurely or abrupt Doesn’t need to be characterized in terms of sleep There is a hypnosis called active –alert hypnosis (peddling on a bike) instead of saying “you’re getting sleepy” or suggesting  drowsiness, this exercise suggests alertness and the hypnosis works. ­In many cases an induction is simply a guided imagery exercise that is used in a situation that had been labeled as hypnosis ­Trance is an older and broader concept than hypnosis and subsumes a variety of different psychological phenomena ­The word trance has been used to refer to states of consciousness in which the appearance of awareness is present but that are actually sleep  like states characterized by involuntary behaviour and decreased environmental responsiveness ­The point of an induction is to do whatever it takes to try and get a person into the state of trance Hypnotic Suggestions ­Following an induction, a hypnotic subject would normally be given SUGGESTIONS ­The degree to which a subject is responsive to suggestions is called HYPNOTIC SUSCEPTIBILITY ­ 4 stages of hypnosis: motor, cognitive, post­hypnosis & suggestion ­Cognitive suggestions involving changes in perception, thought and memory ­An amnesia suggestion could be given which the subject would be told that she would forget the previous suggestions that had been given and  then subsequently challenged to write them down ­Suggestions known as POSTHYPNOTIC SUGGESTIONS can be given during hypnosis to take effect after it has been terminated ­Suggesting to a hypnotic subject that the presence of something that is not objectively real, known as positive hallucinations. Something that  isn’t actually there, is said to be there.  Example, experimenter sits within eyesight of hypnotic subject. Once the subjects eyes were closed the experimenter got up and stood  behind the subject while to subject was told to open her eyes and a positive hallucination of the experimenter sitting in the chair was  given to them ­The ability to mix freely perceptions derived from reality with those that stem from imagination was called trance logic by Orne and considered  to him to be one of the principal features of the hypnotic state ­Negative hallucination  the absence of something that is objectively real. The removal of a sensation. Saying that something that is  there isn’t actually there.  Example it could be suggested to a subject that she will not see a chair that is in the middle of the room, however when asked to walk  around the room the subject will not bump into the chair Early uses of hypnosis during the 19  century before anesthetics, used mesmerism  ­ used a negative hallucination of the absence of pain  during a major surgery Analgesic effects of hypnosis have been demonstrated in both clinical and lab settings Rare occasions hypnotic patients cannot remember what happened during hypnosis It is also possible to give a post hypnotic suggestions to a subject to the effect that she will forget everything that transpired during the  hypnosis until she is given a cue from the hypnotist to remember it Hypnotic amnesia is neither simply an ablation of memory nor pretending to forget and its not just a matter of thought suppression Applications of clinical hypnosis is HUGE. There were over 7000 papers published on it by the year 2004. Research using it to get people to quit  smoking.  Hypnotic Susceptibility Increased suggestibility following hypnotic induction has sometimes been taken as the definition of hypnosis, hypnosis is only one context which  suggestibility can occur Hypnotic Susceptibility Scales Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale developed by Ernest Hilgard and Andre Weitzenhoffer Was designed for individual administration Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility Group administration Carleton University Responsiveness Suggestion Scale Seven suggestions are used ­Individuals who are particularly unresponsive would be classified as LOW on a hypnotic susceptibility, those particularly responsive as HIGH,  and those who score perfect or almost perfect on susceptibility scales would be classified as VIRTUOSOS ­Orne’s idea behind a strategy was to determine how much of what happened during hypnosis was a result of hypnosis rather than implicit  demands paced on a subject in a hypnotic situation Did this by detecting changes between real and stimulating participants  He found that most of the stimulating subjects did no differ behaviourally from those in deep trance The problem is that stimulators could end up being inadvertently hypnotized unless they are low in hypnotisability and impervious to the  hypnotic induction.  High hypnotizable individuals are usually used as reals and low hypnotizables as stimulators Difference in Hypnotic Responding What we see in each case is the persistence of suggested behaviours on the part of those who are high or very high on hypnotic susceptibility in  a manner that is not matched by those who are stimulating hypnotic behaviour turn a dial to indicate their experience low hypnotizable participants behaved as though their arms were rigid without feeling that they were whereas medium and high  hypnotizable participants behaved as though their arms were rigid and indicated that they felt as they were Explanations of Hypnosis Sociocognitive Theory of Hypnosis Nicholas Spanos has maintained that hypnotic phenomena can be explained in the same terms as social behaviours According to the sociocognitive theory responsive hypnotic subjects retain control of their behaviour and guide it strategically in order to meet  implicit and explicit role demands as these become regnant in the hypnotic test solution.  Individual behaviour of hypnotic subjects results from the interactive contribution of numerous variables such as attitudes and expectations  concerning hypnosis and the interpretation stance taken towards suggestions There are a number of ways in which susceptibility can be increased  example. Cognitive training skills Event related potentials (ERPS) are EEG waveforms that follow on the presentation of a series of stimuli Arreed Barabasz, did a study with 5 highly and 5 low susceptibility participants were selected on a basis of screening An EEG was used to measure ERPs in two conditions while subjects listened to a series of 25 tone pipes presented at one second  intervals  In the first condition, both low and high susceptible particiapants were told to imagine foam earplugs in their ears that would reduce the  volume of the sound He found that there were no differences in the amplitudes of ERPs between the non­hypnotic and hypnotic conditions for those who  were low in hypnotic susceptibility.  However there was a significant decrease in the average amplitude of ERPs from the non­hypnotic to the hypnotic condition for the high  susceptibly participants, suggesting that the hallucination of the presence of ear plugs while hypnotized was associated with altered  perception of the auditory stimuli  Involuntary Volition CLASSIC SUGGESTION EFFECT  whereby hypnotic responses are experienced as occurring involuntary According to the sociocognitive approach, hypnotic behaviour is not involuntary but purposeful, goal directed action that can be understood in  terms of how the subjects interpret their situation and how they attempt to present themselves through their actions A Tripartite Theory of Hypnosis Theodore Barber  hypnosis has three separate dimensions ­One of these dimensions, consistent with the sociocognitive view, is embodied by the positively set person is a favourable collocation of ordinary social psychological variables such as attitudes, motivations, and expectancies toward the  situation; relationship with the hypnotist; and readiness to think with and not contradict the hypnotist’ suggestions ­Another hypnotic subject is a fantasy prone person This is someone with an overriding extreme involvement in fantasizing per se, who is able to hallucinate at will in all of the sensory  modalities Fantasy appears to be as vivid as reality, and what is fantasized appears to be experienced in the same way as reality During childhood the fantasy prone person typically lived in a make believe world including dolls, imagery companions, angels and  other memories before age 3 They are convinced that they have had paranormal experiences such as premonitions, telepathic impressions, precognitive dreams,  and out of body experiences with contact with spirits and ghosts There is a connection between mental and bodily events, 75% of women who are fantasy prone can reach a orgasm without highly  tactile stimulation during sexual fantasies Often highly susceptible to hypnosis ­Deirdre Barrett studied 34 participants, and they were split into two groups on the basis of those who could enter hypnosis quickly without a  formal induction and those who could not Those who couldn’t enter hypnosis quickly were identified as fantasizers – being fantasy prone The others tended to be amnesic and dissociative and were referred to as dissociaters  Found that dissociaters had difficultly remembering the content of fantasies, dissociaters experienced dramatic psychophysical  reactions even more extreme than those of fantasizers  Amnesia was consistent and total for dissociaters whenever it was suggested and it sometimes persisted even once removal cues had  been given Dissociaters had more difficulty than fantasizers distinguishing suggested hallunications from reality Dissociation Late 19  century the terms disaggregation and later, dissociation were introduced to refer to the fragmentation of personality elements Dissociation was revived in the 1970s by ERNEST HILGARD who proposed a nerodissociation theory (NDT) of hypnotic phenomena During hypnosis that there was a hidden part of themselves that knew what was happening to their bodies According to the NDT there is a hidden observer present within a person who she is hypnotized, experiencing pain in a dispassionate  manner when she is subjected to painful procedure in spite of the analgesia experience consciously during hypnosis The idea was that hypnosis introduces an amnesic barrier between a persons higher level cognitive functions from which reports of  subjective experiences are normally made and sensory subsystems in which painful stimuli are processed More recent theory of dissociated control has been proposed by KENNETH BOWERS, whereby hypnotic induction is thought to weaken control  by higher level cognitive systems of lower level cognitive subsystems, allowing the subsystems to be invoked directly by suggestion Use the word dissociation in a descriptive sense to refer to any functional disconnection between elements of a person’s psyche irrespective of  what the psychological or physiological mechanism of that disconnection may turn out to be.  Complexity of Hypnotic Experiences Ronald Pekala developed a Phenomenology of Consciousness Inventory (PCI) in which measures changes in subjective experiences  associated with alterations of consciousness. When PCI has been given to hypnotic subjects, a number of individual differences in hypnotic experiences have been distinguished  It has been found that there are two types of highly susceptible subjects One has been characterized by moderate alterations in consciousness and experience, and a great deal of vivid imagery, moderate  positive affect, but only mild to moderate losses in rationality and memory The second type has a large alteration in state of consciousness and moderate altered experience, a loss of volitional control, self  awareness, rationality, and memory; I little vivid imagery PCI has also revealed complexities that do not fit a simplistic version of the theory Suggests that some individuals may enter trance but dissociate to such an extent that they cannot generate the necessary behaviour to  be measured on the hypnotic susceptibility scales or that they have become altogether disconnected from the hypnotic relationship with  no predilection to comply with the hypnotist’s suggestions Applications of Hypnosis Hypnotically Recalled Memories ­Hyperamnesia the enhanced recall of previous events which is the most controversial phenomena associated with hypnosis ­Age regression – one of the items that is found on some susceptibility scales.  A hypnotic subject would be asked to write her name on a pad of paper. Then it would be suggested to her that she is getting younger  until she is back in a fifth grade class. She would again be asked to write her name on the paper and would be said to pass the item if the handwriting changes to either of the  regressed ages In some cases of childhood age regression, individuals can apparently recall traumatic childhood events of which they were unaware in  the ordinary waking state, such as the example of a medical student who recalled, as a child, seriously injuring another boy with a  pitchfork, for which he was subsequently severely punished for During criminal investigations a police officer may hypnotize witnesses or victims to try and gain additional information about a crime Perhaps the most problematic are cases in which adults undergoing psychotherapy claim to have recovered long repressed memories  of sexual abuse or at the hands of parents or other family members – this causes childhood memories with criminal implications ­Hypnotically refreshed memories are not reliable – hypnotic subjects tend to recall more information when hypnotized but much of the  additionally recalled information is incorrect ­Hypnotized high­susceptible participants also made almost three times as many errors as were made by the hypnotized low­susceptible  participants and those in the control group ­Memory recall does not involve the replaying of a tape of events, but is the reconstruction of experiences coloured by general knowledge,  subsequent events, and environmental factors at the time of retrieval ­Construction of incorrect memories is known as CONFABULATION ­Erroneous memories themselves are known as FAKE MEMORIES ­The production of false memories can be demonstrated by reading a list of associated words to a person & then asking her if an associated  work that had or not been read to her had been on the list ­A problem with hypnotically refreshed memories that is hypnotic subjects tend to think that erroneous information is correct ­Emotional intensity rather than a real experience invites confidence in the truth of what is remembered People have argued that traumatic memories, because of the emotional intensity attached to them, are not susceptible to the kinds of memory  distortions that can occur with ordinary biographical memories The idea is that traumatic events, at the time they occur, are actively repressed in the unconscious or dissociated from consciousness to protect  a person from the distress they can cause ­Memories of traumatic events can remain unchanged somewhere in a person’s psyche until they are reawakened in psychotherapy, perhaps  with the assistance of hypnosis ­There is no good evidence that people can forget and then recover after years of repeated horrific abuse On the other hand there is also no hard scientific evidence that people can falsely create an entire history of traumatic sexual abuse  when none occurred The Extent of Hypnotic Regression The further back into childhood we go, the less mature the brain and the more questionable it is that there is any memory of events at all Few people can remember anything from before the age of 3; it has been assumed that INFANTILE AMNESIA exists for events that occurred  before the age of 24 months Infants from 2 to 18 months of age were shown to be able to recognize familiar mobiles and trains, leading the investigators to conclude that  “infants” memory processing does not fundamentally differ from that of older children and adults and that even very young infants can remember  an event over the entire infantile­amnesia period if they are periodically reminded Clinical Applications of Hypnosis Hypnotic analgesia has been shown to be effective not just for the elimination of acute pain but also for the reduction of recurrent pain in chronic  conditions Hypnosis has also been shown to be more effective than no intervention for smoking cessation The use of hypnosis in addition to more traditional cognitive behavioural treatments for a number of disorders such as obesity, insomnia, anxiety,  pain, and hypertension, has been shown to be more effect than the use of the cognitive behaviour treatments alone CHAPTER 6 ­ TRANCE Trance – the juxtaposition of apparent awareness without actual self­determination. Shamanism ­ Tendency to pathologize alterations of consciousness. Characteristics of Shamanism Shamanism – practice in which a person deliberately alters her consciousness for the purpose of interacting with spirits in order to serve the  community in which she finds herself. Interacting with spirits can take one of two forms:  Sou l    Journeying  – shaman travels in other worldly realms in which spirits are encountered. May be flying/falling arriving at another level of reality  that is experienced as being as real as ordinary. Able to remember the events transpired. Involves fantasy. Possession – spirits work through the shaman’s body. Not much imagery, sense of dizziness, alterations in body image or an experience of  weight/pressure on the shoulders or neck explained by being “mounted” by the spirit. Loss of self­awareness and an inability to recall the events. Characterized by dissociation Various forms arise in different cultures from the experiences of their people. ­Shamans become who they are through process of initiation ­ response to a call. ­Initiation is marked by death or rebirth, where neophytes are often isolated from society, subjected to deprivation, experience exhaustion or  suffer a symbolic death resulting in access to another realm of existence. Neophyte – reconstituted, sometimes with changed body parts. Psychedelic drugs – often used to induce experiences of other worlds, including soul journeys. A second stage of the learning process is the shaman receiving instructions from a mentor concerning such matters as the preparation of herbal  medicines and the oral traditions and myths. Shamanism and Schizophrenia Schizophrenia – psychological condition usually characterized by disorganized speech and behavior as well as the presence of psychotic  symptoms such as hallucinogens and delusions. Positive symptoms ­ excess or distortion of normal functions. Negative Symptoms – diminution or loss of normal functions. Delusions – beliefs that are contrary to reality. ­To be diagnosed the symptoms much impair self­care or social or occupational functioning. ­The shamanic initiation resembles schizophrenia to the extent that initiatic crises involve perceived dismemberment, disintegration, vision and  interacting with spirits. ­Shaman’s disintegration makes possible her reconstruction as a healer and her social reintegration. ­Whereas a person with schizophrenia often remains disorganized and becomes a social outcast. ­A shaman learns to gain control. ­Roger Walsh (1995) proposed phenomenological mapping – experiences in different states of consciousness can be compared along a number  of dimensions. ­Shamans have good control over entering and leaving an altered state and some control over the contents of that state. ­Dramatic reduction of control in schizophrenia. ­Concentration is increased in soul journeying. ­The primary characteristic of schizophrenia is the disorganization of thought. ­A shaman’s sense of self is a spirit or soul that has been freed from the body which is what resembles an out of body experience. ­A person w/ schizophrenia has a disintegrated sense of self and rarely has out of body experiences. ­A shaman can experience positive or negative affects during soul journeying. ­The emotional expression of a schizophrenic is often negative, inappropriate or absent. ­The content of experience for a shaman is coherent and determined by the cultural cosmology and purpose of the journey. ­Whereas a person with schizophrenia, the context is often disorganized and fragmented. ­For both, arousal can be high, awareness of the environment low and there may be limited ability to communicate with surrounding people. Shamanism and Hypnosis Etzel Cardena used 12 hypnotic virtuosos, asked them to go into a deep state of hypnosis and every 5 minutes asked them what they were  experiencing: During light levels of hypnosis there were; Alterations of body image Imaginal experiences Frequent mention of flying/floating/sinking/falling or going through tunnels Separation from self Journeys to unusual worlds During deeper levels of hypnosis there were; ­Hearings of music, saw colors, reported synesthesia – experience of s stimulus in sensory modalities other than the one in which it is  received. ­Saw a very bright light some cases becoming one with it ­T
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