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Psychology 2020A/B Study Guide - Harry J. Anslinger, Hash Oil, Sesame Oil


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYCH 2020A/B
Professor
Riley Hinson

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CANNABIS
Marijuana is the street name for the leaves of the plant. Cannabis contains several hundred chemical
agents and 60-80 are called cannabinoids and are unique to the plant.
History
- 10000 years ago: for use of the ber and not a source of drug
- China around 2800 BC: both, used for clothes and psychoacve drug
- Middle east: climate was parcularly conducive to plants (hot and dry)
- Europe early 1800: result of the Brish colonizaon of India and Napoleon’s Egypan
expedions
o J.J Moreau de Tours wrote about it
- 1830: hashish was a romanc rage in Europe
o Le club des Hachicins by Gauer (kind of meat and aer eat it)
- Canada in 1606: introduced by the Brish
o 1929: classied as a narcoc
- America in 1611: introduced by royal order
o Half of the clothes in American Revoluon were made of hemp
o During the period of alcohol prohibion in the US: placed called “tea-rooms”
o 1920-1930: Harry Anslinger, campaign against drug use
o Jused marijuana laws on the fact that the drug was being used by certain racial
minories (Africans Americans and Mexicans)
o 1936: all the states had prohibited marijuana and imposed taxes (Marijuana tax act)
Percentage in Canada
- 45% of Canadian reported using cannabis in their life me
- 14% of Canadian indicated having used cannabis during the last year
- Canadian undergraduate: lifeme (51%), past year (32%), 30 day (17%)
- Grade 7-12 was 22% with no dierence between males and females
THC
- Acve ingredient: delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol
- THC synthesized in 1964
- Joint is about 1.5 grams with 60 mg of THC (lower in 1970)
- About $10 per gram, an ounce of marijuana in street is around $250-300
- Hashish or charas refers to the dried resin of the owers and leaves of the plant
- THC content of hash around 10%
- THC in hash oil (boiling hashish in solvent which extracts the cannabinols) around 40%
Administraon: inhalaon
- THC smoked in joint or reefer
- May use “bong” = pipelike in which the smoke passes through water before being inhaled
- Blunt: marijuana tobacco mixture
- Less than 50% of THC is available for absorpon
- Less than 100% is actually absorbed (around 5-10 mg)
- First me user and non-smoker: inecient in extracng the THC (but beer with pracce)
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Eects by inhalaon
- Onset within seconds
- Peak blood concentraon: 10 minutes
- Peak eects: 30-60 minutes (and during 2-4 hours)
- Half-life of THC: 30 hours
- Cannabinoids are very lipid-soluble, easily cross the blood brain and placenta barriers
- Low level in THC and metabolites are detectable several weeks aer (long half-life and
because THC stays in the fay ssue and reenters the circulaon)
- Posive test can also appear as a results of second hand smoke
Administraon: orally
- May be taken orally, cooked condiment
- But cannabinoids are slowly and poorly absorbed from the digesve tract (only 20%)
- Have to take 3 mes the amount of inhaled dose to see the same eect
Eects (orally)
- Peak eect: 1-3 hours post ingeson (unl 5 hours)
General eects
- A quarter of a joint produces mild euphoria and peacefulness
- 1 joint (moderate dose) produces perceptual and me distorons, drowsiness but dicules
to fall asleep. THC interferes with REM sleep
- 2 joints (high dose) produces hallucinaons, delusions and distorons
- Physiological eect:
o Bloodshot eyes
o No eect of pupil dilataon
o Slight drooping in eyelids
o Dry mouth and thirst
o Hunger and overeang
Balanced placebo design: Metrik et al.
- 2x2 factorial study
- Parcipants are told or not versus what is the actual content of the drug
- Result: large expectancy on rangs strength, taste, smell, sasfacon and hebaviour
THC: aphrodisiac
- Low doses THC: brief rise of testosterone (increase libido)
- Higher doses THC: depressed testosterone=> impotence
- Men who smoke marijuana daily have four mes more troubles to reach orgasm
THC and medical condions
- Several oral and spray form of THC
o Oral spray: savex (mulple sclerosis)
o Reduce nausea (chemotherapy)
- THC available in a sesame oil suspension (generic name: dronabinol, trade name: marinol)
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