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Psychology 2020A/B Study Guide - Jolt Cola, Kola Nut, Shennong


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYCH 2020A/B
Professor
Riley Hinson

Page:
of 4
CAFFEINE
- Most common psychoacve drugs : up to 80% of world populaon
- Daily consumpon: World(70mg) Canada (210mg), US (240mg), Sweden (425mg), UK(450mg)
- Tea: 50mg per cup, Coee: 100mg per cup (vary in order to how its made and type of bean)
Molecules:
- Caeine: 1,3,7 methylxanthine (occur in over 60 species of plant)
- Theophylline and Theobromine: dimethylxanthines (similar to caeine)
- Xanthine: protects plants, in increasing the producon of NT: octopamine -> insects: over
excitaon and death/ Caeine is only the xanthine found in coee.
- Octopamine: ecofriendly pescides
- Methylxanthine: coee, tea, yerba mate (used like tea), guarana (used like coee but twice
amount of caeine), kola nut, cacao
History:
- First caeine smulaon: china 2737 B.C: emperor Shen Nung => boiled water (clean) leaf
feel into the cup => tea (apparently he also discovered marijuana and ephedrine) but
migrated in 1500 to Europe (seduced Brish and Russian (samovars=large urns of tea))
- Opium wars of the mid 1800’s: Brish forced Chinese to accept opium in payment for tea.
- Canada: rst imported tea around 1716 (Hudson’s bay company)
- Tea: caeine + theophylline (also a smulant)
- A goat herder found the berries of the coee.
- Religious tried to prohibit the coee (same eect of the alcohol): Murad IV and King Charles II
- Coee introduced to Europe by the Oomans (trade)
- Penny universies: coeehouses (intellectual atmosphere of universies but cheaper)
- Caeine isolated from coee in 1820 and tea in 1827
Others sources:
- Cola drinks: Canadians drank 85 liters per year in 2006 (1 can per day)/ US: 216 liters per year
(around 3 cans every day)
- Need to add almost 95% of caeine to the cola: kola nut: not enough so come from the
caeine removed in the decaeinang of coee.
- Typical can of cola: 40mg of caeine, dew: 55, Pepsi: 40, Coke: 35, 7Up: 0
- Energy drinks: caeine derived from guarana, increasing energy and mental alertness
o Red bull: 80
o Jolt: 280
o Bawls: 70
o Full throle: 150
- Energy drinks: contains taurine and caeine and smulate cognive performance and well
being
- Energy drinks: associated with higher level of alcohol consumpon in UNI students (but not a
causal link, just suggest, maybe just because consumers are more prone to use over drugs)
- Study: grade 7 to 12,use energy drinks, grade 7: 34% => grade 12: 58%
Pills:
- Pure caeine is sold as ansleep pills
o No doz and Vivarin (enough dose in a bole to be fatal!)
- Some pain relievers and cold remedies
- In chewing gums, mints and candies:
o Stay alert chewing gums (military,, 100 mg per sck)
o Jolt Gum and Black Black chewing gum
- Faster administraon of caeine via chewing gum than via tablet
- But, reports of caeine intoxicaon in young children
Methylxanthine theobromine:
- Primary source: chocolate (beans of cacao pods)
- Cacao grow in Mexico, central America, Caribbean, south America, africa and asia
- Chocolate: drink used by Aztecs (when Spanish came to south and north America)
- Then Cortes took the chocolate from spain (usually reserved for the Spanish court and
aempts were made to keep its existence secret)
- Spanish princesses: gi to Louis 13 and Louis 14
- Chocolate was considered as a symbol of wealth because cacao and sugar are very expensive
- Theobromine content:
o Chocolate milk: 40 mg
o Cacao powder: 20mg
o Chocolate bar: 70 mg
o Dark chocolate bar: 180mg
o Kit kat: 40 mg
o Bar of unsweetened baking chocolate: 160 mg
- Eect of theobromine: similar to caeine but weaker (10%)
- Theobromine in chocolate can be harmful, fatal is ingested by dogs and horses
- Pure caeine is a white powder extremely bier
Biology:
- Caeine might be injected
- Caeine is rapidly absorbed by gastrointesnal tract, then metabolized in the liver (90%
excreted)
o Signicant blood level reach in: 30-60 min
o Peak blood concentraon: 1 hour
o Peak CNS: about 2 hours
o Half-life of caeine: 5 hours
- The enzyme in the liver is CYP1A2 (inhibited by certain SSRI, proba to adverse eect of
caeine)
- Smokers metabolized caeine twice as fast as nonsmokers (more liver enzyme)
- Pregnancy and contracepves slow down caeine metabolism (10 hours half-life)
- Caeine and others methylxanthines are compeve antagonists at adenosine receptors (in
periphery AND CNS)
- Adenosine is supposed to reduce release of NT and suppresses neural acvies
- When adenosine binds the receptors:
o Sleepiness, dilaon of blood vessels, constricon of bronchial passageways, reducing
body reacon to stress.
- Caeine will occupy adenosine receptors (without any neurochemical acon): reverse
adenosine eects
o Neural excitaon, ght or ight (pupil dilaon, opening airways, increased heart rate
and muscle tone, release sugar, constricon of blood vessel in the brain (headaches)
Psychological eects of caeine:
- Elevaon of subjecve mood
- Increased mental alertness BUT reduces visual and auditory reacon mes (boredom and
fague in vigilance tasks)
- Increased restlessness and wakefulness, urinary excreon of calcium (osteoporosis and bone
fractures)
- Decreased appete, quality of sleep
- Does not counteract the eects of alcohol
- Heat burn (relaxaon of the esophageal sphincter)
Lethal dose:
- 200mg/kg (possible by pills not by drinks)
- 200lb person: 150 cups or 90 vivarin tablets
- 120 pounds: 100 cups
Self-administraon and condioned place preference
- Not so sure to be a reinforce (some studies failed and some studies: yes with low dose but
with higher dose: produce condioned place aversions)
Caeinism
- The amount needed varies with age, sex, cigaree, smoking status, previous history
- About 600 mg (6 cups or 2 starbuck’s grande) over few hours
- But can occur with smaller dose, chewing gum in young child
- DSM-IV:
o Recent excessive consumpon (2, 3 cups =250 mg)
o Have symptoms of caeine ingeson
o Signicant distress or impairment (not due to general medical condion)
Tolerance and physical dependence:
- Typical paern: consumpon of moderate amounts over long period interspersed by periods
of heavier use and total absnences
- Studies: tolerance to many but not all the eect of caeine
- Possible to develop rapid tolerance: 250mg daily (7 cups) for 3 consecuve days
- Tolerance occurs more slowly for typical paern
- Tolerance: cardiovascular eects, locomotor smulang eect, mood eects, sleep
- Physical dependence: Dreisbach and Pfeier:
o Parcipants received increasing doses (up to 850mg/day in caeine capsules) across
7 days then placebo.
o Withdrawal symptoms: fague, disinclinaon to work, mental depression, headache
(most common). They appear about 12 or 24h aer cessaon of caeine
consumpon, peak aer 24 or 48hours,and gone by one week
- Doesn’t maer where the caeine comes from to create dependence
Pregnancy and ferlity
- May reduce ferlity (even when level of smoking is controlled)
- Stanton and Gray: woman who drank more than 300 mg of caeine daily => diculty to get
pregnant