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caffeine.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course
Psychology 2020A/B
Professor
Riley Hinson
Semester
Winter

Description
CAFFEINE - Most common psychoactive drugs : up to 80% of world population - Daily consumption: World(70mg) Canada (210mg), US (240mg), Sweden (425mg), UK(450mg) - Tea: 50mg per cup, Coffee: 100mg per cup (vary in order to how it’s made and type of bean) Molecules: - Caffeine: 1,3,7 methylxanthine (occur in over 60 species of plant) - Theophylline and Theobromine: dimethylxanthines (similar to caffeine) - Xanthine: protects plants, in increasing the production of NT: octopamine -> insects: over excitation and death/ Caffeine is only the xanthine found in coffee. - Octopamine: ecofriendly pesticides - Methylxanthine: coffee, tea, yerba mate (used like tea), guarana (used like coffee but twice amount of caffeine), kola nut, cacao History: - First caffeine stimulation: china 2737 B.C: emperor Shen Nung => boiled water (clean) leaf feel into the cup => tea (apparently he also discovered marijuana and ephedrine) but migrated in 1500 to Europe (seduced British and Russian (samovars=large urns of tea)) - Opium wars of the mid 1800’s: British forced Chinese to accept opium in payment for tea. - Canada: first imported tea around 1716 (Hudson’s bay company) - Tea: caffeine + theophylline (also a stimulant) - A goat herder found the berries of the coffee. - Religious tried to prohibit the coffee (same effect of the alcohol): Murad IV and King Charles II - Coffee introduced to Europe by the Ottomans (trade) - Penny universities: coffeehouses (intellectual atmosphere of universities but cheaper) - Caffeine isolated from coffee in 1820 and tea in 1827 Others sources: - Cola drinks: Canadians drank 85 liters per year in 2006 (1 can per day)/ US: 216 liters per year (around 3 cans every day) - Need to add almost 95% of caffeine to the cola: kola nut: not enough so come from the caffeine removed in the decaffeinating of coffee. - Typical can of cola: 40mg of caffeine, dew: 55, Pepsi: 40, Coke: 35, 7Up: 0 - Energy drinks: caffeine derived from guarana, increasing energy and mental alertness o Red bull: 80 o Jolt: 280 o Bawls: 70 o Full throttle: 150 - Energy drinks: contains taurine and caffeine and stimulate cognitive performance and well being - Energy drinks: associated with higher level of alcohol consumption in UNI students (but not a causal link, just suggest, maybe just because consumers are more prone to use over drugs) - Study: grade 7 to 12,use energy drinks, grade 7: 34% => grade 12: 58% Pills: - Pure caffeine is sold as antisleep pills o No doz and Vivarin (enough dose in a bottle to be fatal!) - Some pain relievers and cold remedies - In chewing gums, mints and candies: o Stay alert chewing gums (military,, 100 mg per stick) o Jolt Gum and Black Black chewing gum - Faster administration of caffeine via chewing gum than via tablet - But, reports of caffeine intoxication in young children Methylxanthine theobromine: - Primary source: chocolate (beans of cacao pods) - Cacao grow in Mexico, central America, Caribbean, south America, africa and asia - Chocolate: drink used by Aztecs (when Spanish came to south and north America) - Then Cortes took the chocolate from spain (usually reserved for the Spanish court and attempts were made to keep its existence secret) - Spanish princesses: gift to Louis 13 and Louis 14 - Chocolate was considered as a symbol of wealth because cacao and sugar are very expensive - Theobromine content: o Chocolate milk: 40 mg o Cacao powder: 20mg o Chocolate bar: 70 mg o Dark chocolate bar: 180mg o Kit kat: 40 mg o Bar of unsweetened baking chocolate: 160 mg - Effect of theobromine: similar to caffeine but weaker (10%) - Theobromine in chocolate can be harmful, fatal is ingested by dogs and horses - Pure ca
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