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Drugs 2020.docx

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Western University
Psychology 2020A/B

CAFFEINE General: - world’s most common drug for psychoactive effect,80% world consumes caffeine a day - daily consumption in Canada is 70mg and Us 210 mg. - Coffee=100mg a cup and tea=50mg a cup - Caffeine= 1,2,7- trimethylxanthine (one of several) - methylxanthines are in more than 60 plant species, xanthines are protection from insects, when eaten cause over production of octopamine (exciditory neurotransmitter) cause over excitement and die. Humans don’t produce octopamine - methylaxaine plants are coffee, tea, yerba mate, guarana, kola nut, and cacao - yerba and guarana from south Africa, yerba made like tea and guarana like coffee - caffeine content of guarana 2x more then coffee beans and found in energy drinks Tea: - earliest used for effect, dating back to 2737 BC in china by emperor Chen Nung - tea didn’t migrate out of east asia until 1500s, when introd to Europe - tea made in large urns called samovars, still practiced today - great demand in britian had opium payment to chinese, reason for Opium war - first shipment to Canada in 1716 by Hudson bay company - tims mg amount black -50, 60 90mg, green- 20, 25, 35mg - green and black from same plant but black is fermented destroying polyphenols Coffee - discovery of coffee by Ethiopian Goat herder that saw goats excited after eating berries. He tried some and brought some to chef who made a fermented juice beverage - coffee beans were chewed or fermented, and later rosted in Africa and middle east - attemps to ban coffee on religious grounds as considered intoxicant like alcohol - law made if went to coffee house twice would be sewn in bag and thrown in river - coffee spread thru muslam as devotional and social drink - introduced to Europe by ottomans thru trade, known as “Wine of Islam” - king Charles issued close of coffee houses, only lasted 2 weeks - nickname of coffee house =penny university, as intellectual atmosphere but cheap - amount of caffeine per cup varies on how its made and type of bean but 100mg standard for 5oz - Tims = 80, 100 140mg and Starbucks= 180, 260, 330mg - Caffine is the only xanine in coffee Cola and Energy Drinks - Canadians = 85L per year (1 can a day)US= 216L year, (3 cans a day) - 85% caffeine added from caffeine extracted from decaf coffee - aprox can=40mg (mountain dew=50, Pepsi=40, Coke=35, &up =0 - energy drink content not much higher that a starbucks grande coffee - energy drinks are supposed to increase energy and mental elertness, some improvement but mostly due to caffeine - some energy drinks contain taurine and vitimans but not shown greater effects - finding that energy drink consumption relates to higher alcohol comsumption in uni students. Could be because energy drinks have characteristics that make them more prone to overall drug use, not necessarily linked - 2011 Ontario Student Survey=50% use in past year and 20% in past 7 days (186000 students) Pure Caffeine Pill - can be 100mg or 200mg and bottle is enough to be lethal with reports of abuse - pure powder is white and bitter and mostly taken orally, maybe injected - pain relievers and cold meds contail caffeine aswell as mints, candies and gums - gum is faster bioavailability than tablet, and candy form is dangerous as reports of caffeine intoxication in young children Chocolate - primary source of methylanthine theobromine, made from cacao bean pods - used as a drink by Aztec, wasn’t sweet. When came to spain attempt to secret it - given to Spanish princesses as betrothal gifts (association of choco with romance) - chocolate not rich in caffine but main sorce is theobromine - 24o ml chocolate milk=40mg, cocoa powder=20mg, chocolate bar=70mg, dark=180 mg, unsweetened =160mg of theobromine - theobromine similar to caffine except drug is week, 1/10 potent of caf or theoph - theobromine can be harmful and fatial to dogs and horses Caffeine and the Body - rapidly absorbed thru gastrio tract, reaches blood levels in 30-60 min peak blood conc at 1 hour and peak CNS at 2 hours. Half life 5 hours - metabolized in liver and 90% excrete metabolized. CYP1A2 metabolizes caffeine - smokers metabolize 2x faster due to induction of liver, may account for relationship of coffee consumption and smoking. - Pregnancy and contraception slow down caffine metabolism and increase half life to 10h near end of pregnancy - Caffeine and methylxanthines are competitive antagonists at adenosine receptors in pns and cns - Adenosine acts to reduce bodys reaction to stress so when caffeine blocks receptor opposite effect leads to excitation, heart rate increase, open airways, sugar to blood, increase muscle tone - Caffeine constricts bloodvessels in brain releving headaches Psychological Effects of Caffine: - elevation of mood and increased mental elertness, increased wakefulness, decreased appetite and decrease quality of sleep, heartburn, increase excretion and inhibit of calcium. Lethal dose 200mg per kg. impossible thru drink but can pill - caffeine doesn’t reverse effects of alcohol Self Administration and Conditioned Place Preference - studys demonstrate caffeine reinforces self admin paradigm, but not impressive - other studys fail to find evidence of caffeine admin - some studys demonstrate conditioned place preference with low doses, and high doses place aversions - reinforcing effects of caffeine less prominent and reliable than other drugs - consumption of large amounts lead to acute caffeine intoxication or caffeinism - tipical amount to produce intoxication is 600mg - caffinesim is consumption in excess 250mg, causing 5 or more symptoms: restlessness, insomnia, flushed face, diuresis, gastriointestinal disturbance, muscle twitching, rambling words and thoughts, inexhaustibility, agitation, hyperesthesia ringing ears etc - tipical caffeine consumption moderate amounts over long period of time with heavy and abstinence periods - tolerance to many but not all effects of caffeine. Tolerance to cardio, stimulant, and mood effects with confliction reports on sleep disturbance effects - studys show clear physical dependence of caffeine, across 7 days given 600mg of caffeine than placbo pill. Notes fatigue, declination to work, mental depression, and headache. Other research shows most common headache - withdrawl symptoms begin 12-24 h and peek at 24-48h, and gone in week - even missing morning cup of coffee can lead to withdrawl - it is possible to produce dependence in short time (6-15 days od 600mg) but usually happens over a longer time and short doses - it doesn’t matter what form of caffeine you take to get intake - people don’t think of caffeine as a drug Caffeine and Pregnancy - evidence caffeine reduces fertility in women study found if during more than 300mg daily had harder time conceiving than women without caffeine- but studies also show no relationship - evidence of high consumption (6-8 cups of coffee) caffeine causing still birth and miscarriage - 75% women consume caffeine every day in beverage - reports of babies having caffeine with drawl symptoms - long history of research on harmful effects of caffeine during pregnancy back to the 1980s - recent summery concludes that caffeine associated with low birth weight (28g per cup coffee) - not as harmful as alcohol or other solvents - evidence shows 400mg/day increases risk of SIDS, as increase adenosine receptors in fetus exposed to caffeine and increase level of depressed repression resulting from excess receptors when adenosine acts during periods of hypoxia Tobacco - first users Myans in Cent. Amer 300 AD. Europeans saw natives roll leaves into rods, light them and insert into nostrals. Brought tobacco back with them to Europe 1500s - had enthusiasm and medical power at first, ever prescribed for bowel obstruction - comsumed primarly by pipe by 1600s and common for both sexes(tobacco house) - 1700s snuff (finly ground tobacco) was most popular use “art on taking snuff” - 1800s chewing became popular, 2 ways: loose leaves or plugs (mixed with other) - a lot of spitting rose on streets and in tobacco houses - mid 1800s the cigar became popular in US. Was hand roller than machine envented by james Bonsack in 1881 (major development) - tobacco generally accepted or ignored, but always some who opposed - King James refuted clames of benefit of smoking and Pope made ban for catholics as thought to resemble sexual ecstasy (1624) - Sultan prohibited smoking in Ottoman Empire, if caught, beheaded - Ibrahim the Mad lifted ban and tobacco joined coffee, wine and opium as one of 4 cushions of pleasure - Czar banned smoking in 1634, enforced by whipping, flogging and slitting nostril for first offence, second offence was execution - 1895 North Dakota first state to ban cigarettes, 14 states follower - Anti Ciggarete League formed in 1899 headed by Lucy Gaston (said coffin nails) - Hitler said revenge of red man as white brought alcohol to natives. Started antismoking campaign but all failed - Main reason due to govs dependence on tobacco revenue - Became sexy and glamerous to smoke, steady rate increase per capita and peeked at 4300 in 1964 when 40% of US adult pop smokers, steady decline since then - 70% adult pop in Canada smokers in 1950s, 18% in 2008 - in 1995 45 billion cig produced in Canada and since dropped to 35 bill by 2003 - in 1995, enough cig produced to circle globe at equat 112 times - Past year use in Ontario Grade 12 in 2011, 15% , Under grad 13% in 2004 - Use of tobacco products cost Canadians more in health care expenses, lost productivity, and premature death that total for either alcohol or illegal drugs - Est 17 billion in costs in 1992, $541 for every person - Of 40000 deaths in Canada whom died from substance problem, 37000 were tob - Persons life shortened 14 min for every cig smoked, die 12 years earlier - Smoking responsible for 30% all deaths due to heart disease, 80-90% chronic lung disease and 30% all cancers, 90% lung cancers - Smoke exhailed by smoker is mainstream smoke, smoke eliminated from lit tobacco is side stream smoke - Side stream is more harmful that mainstream as it hasn’t been filtered - Living or working in place where smoking is permited increases heart or cancer risk by 30%, tobacco 3 leading preventable death cause - Second hand smoke increases risk of cognitive impairment and dementia, babys increase risk of SIDS (70% SIDS attributed to parental smoking) - Children increase risk of developing bronchitis, pneumonia and astma - Evidence for genetic influence and demographic factors lead to smoking - Female smoke as weight control (39% prim reason), social influneces (peer and parental) psychological factors (smokers exhibit low conscientiousness, low agreeability, high extroversion, increase neuroticism, more anxiety, less self control, and less morning more eveningness - Higher incident for certain mental disorders, 23% no disorder, 41% disorder - Most frequent is depression, also linked to alcohol abuse (some evidence nicotine may have antidepressant affects) - Relationship between adverse childhood experienced lead to smoking as relief - Studies show nicotine have positive effects on animal model of depression Nicotine: The Active Ingredient - primary psychoactive ingredient in tobacco, purified 1828 by 2 french chemists - oily colourless or slightly brown substance with unpleasant smell - when inhaled reaches brain in 7 seconds and is also absorbed thru skin - since nicotine is a pestiside, can be poisoning if unprotected workers - main metabolite of nicotine is cotinine, used as marker in urine for tobacco use - evidence of second hand smoke when fornd in childs urine - 30-40% inhaled nicotine is excreted unchanged, amount excreted depends on ph - nicotine is a base, alkalinizing the urine so diet high alk keeps nicotine in blood - stress results in acidification of urin, so stressed contitions =smoke more - nicotine activates nicotinic cholinergic receptors such as dopaminergic neurons. More domapine released “rewarding pathway” prefrontal cortex - Nicotine interferes with GABA which normally inhibits dop release if over activity in dop neurons. Nicotine prevents this negative feedback of GABA leading to more dop activation - Typical cig contains .5-2.0 mg nicotine, only 20% is usually inhailed to bloodstrm - Amount of nic, tar and monoxide inhaled dependent on smoking topography (how cig is smoked) - Values of amounts printed on packs reflects smoking topography of machine so unless human smokes exactially like machine, delivery can very considerably - Light cig have holes that circle filter so low levels can be sucked but people may tape holes or place fingers at holes to omit this - Dark stain = lots of tar and nic aposed to light. Solution would be gradation chart - Gov accused companies with misleading advertisement as “light” leads somkers to believe less harmful form of smoking - Nicotine affects brain stem vomiting center, affecting naïve smokers - Increases heartrate, bp, constricts blood vessels, hands and feet cold and clamy - Males experience impotience over long period time - Nicotine is toxic, LD 60mg, and cig contains 2x that but not all inhailed - 4000 compounds released during smoking a cig, tar and monoxide 2 main ones - tar is any other substance other that CO2 and nic and shown by filter(brown stain) - butt colour charts on packs could benefit smokers - tar paralyzes cilia in lungs allowing harmful constituts to stay in lungs - CO2 binds to hemoglobin which reduces O2 carrying capacity. 1 cig reduces O2 capacity equal to loss of 250 cc blood and have 10x amount of carboxyhemoglobin than non smoker - Evidence women more susceptible to harmful effects of smoking that men - Cholinergic nervous sys involved in learning and mem, nic acts on cholinergic sys and is likely to improve memory and learning - Enhances performance in concentration tasks over long per time and reduces interference from irrelevant stim and increases attention to relivent stim - Stoop task- word of colour made in different colour. Try to say the visual colour not the written colour as fast as possinle. Require ignore of semantic content. Nic reduces interference of semantic and can name colours faster that non nic person - Studys suggest nic helps some cognative deficit in alzheimers and even nondemented elderly - Choligernic hypofunction is a consistent finding in Alz and activation of sys seems to provide benefit - Nicotine also shown to amerliorate some learning and memory deficits in animals Self Administration and Condition Place Prefrence: - nicotine considered reliable reinforce in animals in self admin paradigm - progressive ratio with dogs, nic break point was 500 responses (cocaine 3750) - shown to support conditioned place preference - many drugs block acquisition and/ or expression of both nicotine and self admin and conditioned place preference (mecamylamine, rimonabant, and naloxone) Tolerance and Dependence: - inconsistent evidence with tolerance effects of nicotine in humans and animals - some evidence tolerance to mood effects of nicotine, little for performance effects - little tolerance to locomotor, reinforcing or dopamine releasing effects - lack of tolerance of effects lead some to think tolerance has little role in addiction - others think tolerance and dependence reflect common adaptive mechanism so expected two will be present or absent in concert - clear evidence of withdrawl symptoms in humans and animals - nicotine dependence and withdrawal included as diagnostics in psychiatric texts - symtoms include increase neg affect, decrease in arousal, sleep disturbance, restlessness, attention deficits, tension, irratibility, headaches, increased appitite and craving of cigarettes - craving cig is one symptom reported for years following quitting Treatment: - avg smoker quits 9x before successful, 95% quit without formal treatment - one year relapse rate high and 80-95% - should be easier for women to quit as usually choose light brand, inhale less, smoke less a day, but found harder to quit and stay quit then men. - Could be due to sensory effects, conditioned cues, social pleasures and rituals - Several pharmacotherapies for smoking cessation most common nic replacement - Nic delivered by other means that smoking ie patch, gum, nasal spray, inhalant - Smokers usually relapse due to withdrawal symptoms so maintaining nic in blood reduces symptoms…but if this was the only factor nicotine replacement should be more successful - Nicotine replacement increases odds of success, but no better than placebo with x2, still only 10% - Nic replacement reduces withdrawl but has no effect on craving a cig. Once habit acquired its not just about getting nicotine. Patch and gum doesn’t deliver hit like cig does (7 sec to brain, 10 hits a cig is about 70000 hits a year ) - Bupropion also used in quitting, nicotinic receptor antagonist and blocks dopamine reuptake - Origionally antidepressant but better in successful quitting. Double the placebo and can combine with nic replacement for better results - Varenicline is the most recent parmaco quitting tool that is a receptor agonist at nicotinic receptors. Attaches to nicotinic receptors but doesn’t produce same level of agonism nicotine does - Reduces levels of nicotinic stim therefore reduces dopamine release - Effective in reducing withdrawl symptoms and cravings and more effective than nic replacement and bupropion but may produce side effects Smoking in pregnant women: - 15-30% US smoke during pregnancy but declines every year…still very high tho - can be effected by maternal or second hand smoke - maternal= spontaneous abortion, still birth, pre mat birth, low bw, strabismus - Weitzman study in animals found increased activity, decreased learning and memory, changes in brain and neurochem functioning - In humans found delays in math, reading and general intellectual marks, externalized behavior, reduced intellectual abilities (5 pts lower on IQ test) , increased hyperactivity and add - Deficits become more pronounced the higher the daily consumption (10 or more a day cig is clear increase of risk) - Delirious affects due to direct action of nic on fetus, fetal breathing movements are decreased 50% following 1 maternal smoked cig, indirect result of nicotine produced vasoconstriction with resultant reduced uterine blood flow, increased cellular hypoxia - Smoking by father also produces detrimental effects on fetus - Smoking depletes vit C and sperm of men with low Vit C have been found to be abnormal and may relate to birth defects like cleft palate and lip CANNABIS - marijuana, comes from leaves of plant cannabis sativa, indica, ruderalis - contains several hundred chemical agents of which some (cannabinoids) are unique to the plant - hot dry climate= low fiber content, so much resin plant looks like covered in dew - cool humid climate= more fiber content, less resin - cannabis known 10000 years ago but for use of fiber not psychoactive drug - cannabis oldest cultivated plant not used for food - used for psychoactive properties in china 2800BC and also used for clothing/rope - spread to middle east where climate conductive to plants with high THC content - Hasish in Europe 1800s, 1830s=romantic rage “hachcins” formed sweet meet called dawamesc (flower tops boiled in butter, strained and seasoned) - Cannabis in Canada 1606 by British and in America by royal in 1611 for hemp - Cannabis an ingredient in several medicines by 1800s - During alcohol probitionin US “Tea Rooms” became common (more so that alc) - Caught attention of Law is 1920/30s thru Harry Anslinger who had campaign against drug use, largely justified by racial minorities - By 1936 all states prohibited marijuana,attempted control by imposing taxes 1937 - WW2 146000acres of hemp planted - Marij classified as narcotic, 45% canadians 15+ used form of cannabis in life time, 14% 15+ in last year, Undergrad 30 day use 51%, 32%, 17%, Ontario grade7-12 past 30 day use 22% - Active ingredient is delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and isolated in 1964 - 1970 typical use marij cig weighed 1.5g and 15-30mg THC, now 60mg THC - total street value of all plant product $2.5 bill, each plant worth $1000, $10 per gram, 1 ounce $250-300 - hash is dried resin of plant, thc content is 10% - hash oil made by boiling in solvent, thc content 40% - smoking take place with bong which passes smoke thru water before inhaled - blunt id a marij and tobacco mixture packed into hollow cigar - less that 50% THC in joint available for absorption (5-10mg) - first time users feel little effect as cant extract THC, effects increase with use (due to increase efficiency of extraction THC - smoking very efficient method for getting to brain, occurs in seconds with peak blood conc in 10 min and peek effect in 30-60 min lasting 2-4 hours - THC half life 30hours, very lipid soluable and can cross blood-brain barrier and placental barriers and deposit into fatty tissue and organs - Tch dectable in body days to weeks after use and can be from second hand smoke - Marij taken orally mixed into food (brownie) poorly absorbed thru digestive(20%) - Oral dose 3x the inhailed dose, peak effects 1-3 hours and last up to 5 - Low dose (1/4-1/2 joint) produce mild euphoria and peacefulness - Moderate (one joint) produce perceptual and time distortions - High dose (2 joints) produce hallucinations, delusions and distortions - THC causes drowsiness and increases sleep time, but habitual users find hard falling asleep - Thc interferes with rem sleep, so rem rebound upon termination of use - Psychological effects are bloot shot eyes (dialation of small blood vessels), no effect on pupal diameter, slight droop in eyelids, dry mouth and thirst, hunger and overeating - Study by Metrik on effect expectancies of marij. Used balanced placebo effect (2x2 factoral where participants are given or not given the drug and lead to believe they were getting the drug or not. Studied pharm vs expected effects - Expected effects based on potency, strength, taste, smell, satisfaction, behavior marij useful as aphrodisiac, at low dose can cause brief rise in testosterone resulting in increase libido, but at higher dose testosterone levels are depressed reducing libido - Thc useful for a variety of medical conditions and no evidence smoking is best way to admin it. - Several oral sprays that my be better way to admin that smoking - THC available is sesame oil suspension (dronabinol or marinol) or in synthetic form (nabilone or cesamet) - Sativex is oral spary approved for MS THC is an antiemic, used for chemotharpy and AIDS loss of apitite - Marinol and Cesamet are better antiemics than smoking marij - THC large
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