Study Guides (238,408)
Canada (115,131)
Psychology (1,609)
Decicco (1)

Drugs and Behaviour- study notes .docx

16 Pages
Unlock Document

Western University
Psychology 2020A/B

Drugs and Behaviour Study notes Inhalants  If the drug is burned or heated in order to be inhaled- it is not classified as an inhalant  Inhalants include volatile hydrocarbons, solvents without any medical use, anaesthetic gases with some medical uses, and a variety of nitrates  20% used by kids- popular because they are cheap and easily available, most likely a young persons first use of an illicit drug is an inhalant  Use of solvents decrease after grade 7, use at around 60% in the Ontario student drug use in health survey Anaesthetic Gases Ether and chloroform  Spanish chemist Raymundus distilled alcohol and sulphuric acid together producing sweet vitriol  German chemist Frobinues gave sweet vitriol the name ether  Can be inhaled or swallowed but this is hard because of the burning sensation it produces  Easier when it is combined with alcohol- Hoffman’s drops, which are three parts alcohol and one part ether (popular among women who were not supposed to drink alcohol in public)  1800’s alcohol was taxed- so these drops became increasingly popular because it was used to get drunk  Chloroform was synthesized in 1831, similar to ^ but it is more potent Nitrous oxide  Known as laughing gas- discovered by Sir Joseph Priestly  Used in parties because it produces a euphoric effect that last for a short amount of time then produces a feeling of well being  Sometimes you can get ringing in the ears as a side effect  When people use whip cream cans recreationally it is called whippets  Sometime people inflate a balloon with it and then pass it around  Use reclined in the 1980’s  It is popular as a club drug or an after dinner drug, and is given the popular name of hippie crack  Danger is hypoxia: lack of oxygen, or permanent nerve damage followed by excessive use (due to the inactivation of vitamin B12 dependent enzyme)  There has been demonstrations of physical dependence in mice- this can be eliminated f the rat is given nitrous oxide  Opiate antagonists do not induce withdrawal – but they do block the effects  Human users are not likely to get these effects because they do not use enough recreationally  All anaesthetic gases increase GABA-mediated inhibition, reduce effectiveness of NMDA, enhance the effects of glycine  Evidence of a conditioned place avoidance, but some evidence of self administration, there are rewarding effects, but not like other drugs Solvents  Toluene containing substances have the highest level of potential abuse o May have hallucinogenic effects because it activates the mesolimbic dopaminergic system o It enhances GABA and glycine o It produces self administration and conditioned place preference  There are many household items that can be used to produce an effect  Solvent users are not emotionally the same as other drug users  Solvent abuse and antisocial personality disorder are highly correlated  Popular ways of administration: o Huffing (soaking the cloth in the substance o Bagging (filling the bag with the solvent)  Solvents are highly lipid soluble  The onset of solvents is very rapid- people usually expose themselves to more than 50 times the industrial use  The term quick drunk has been used  effects produces 109  Tolerance and physical dependence to not seem to appear  Shown (tolerance and withdrawal) in animals absences of tolerance and withdrawal may be due to the amount the person is exposed to  Chronic solvent users are worse off then chronic cocaine users  less cognitive functioning  There is evidence of fetal solvent syndrome  There have been efforts to reduce use, making a parent be there when industrial glues are sold or making them more expensive, but these fail because they are so readily available Nitrites  Include amyl, butyl and isobutyl, they are yellow, flammable and have a fruity odor  Synthesized in 1867  Tolerance comes from studies involving workers who were exposed over long periods of time  Amyl nitrate prescription drug that is used as an antidote for cyanide poisoning and angina pain  Butyl and isobutyl are not used medically but can be bought in sex shops  Commercially available nitrates  often show their association with sex: Thrust, heart on, toilet water etc.  Abused nitrates are often known as poppers  They are vasodilators  They relax smooth muscle and control blood vessel and sphincter diameter  The effects of these drugs are rapid  Tolerance does develop to most of the effects  There are withdrawal symptoms shown  They are intended to be inhaled only, when the are ingested orally the can cause suffocation- they reduce the carrying capacity of oxygen molecules Steroids  Estimated that one third of college athletes use steroids  (6% males and 2% females) high school users  Goldman “if you found a drug that would let you win all of your competitions, but they you would die, would you use it “ – 50% said yes  Use of steroids driven by people who want the ideal body shape  Drive for muscularity- dysmorphia  Cholesterol is the main building block of steroids  Natural ones: females estrogen and progesterone, cortisol released by adrenal glands in response to stress  Abused steroids are called anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS)  Developed in 1930 to treat hypergonadism (testes don’t produce sufficient testosterone for growth)  Used in the soviet union in the 1954 Olympics  They typically increase muscle mass in the upper body  The drugs taken orally are subjected to the “first pass” where they are metabolized by the live, so they can be injected  They have masculinizing effects, hence the name androgenic (male sex hormones are androgens)  Medical does is about 100 mg per week (males who produce too little testosterone)  Abuse patterns: stacking or pyramiding – person takes it for several weeks starting with low doses and then increases the does regularly, then it is again reduced so hopefully It will go undetected  Abusers usually take excess of 1000mg per week  They provide a variety of adverse effects (stunt growth, decrease HDL but increase LDL, testicular atrophy, reduced libido, painful erections, breast enlargement, male pattern baldness, in women deepen voice, more hair, enlarged clitoris, and irregular menstruation)  Riod rage- aggression in users  And there is also an increase in manic episodes- extreme positive mood rapid speech, racing thoughts  These are not self administered, users have some unsettling symptoms when they stop the drug  There is agreement that steroids produce conditions necessary for the diagnosis of drug dependence according to the DSM-IV criteria Stimulants Ma Huang and Ephedrine  Earliest recognized- is a Chinese herb that comes from a leafless, desert shrub known as the horsetail plant  Ma- means pungent and Huang- means yellow (accurately depicts the plant)  Main active ingredient- sympathomimetic ephedrine and pseudoephedrine  Because ephedrine is a vasodilator it is available over the counter for asthma and nasal decongestion  Ephedrine intended for legitimate medical reasons is often diverted into the illegal production of methamphetamine  Ephedra- used to found in certain natural weight loss and energy boosting preparations since it produces the burning of fat (combined with caffeine)  Ephedra has now been banned for Canada and the united states (because it causes an increase in temp, blood pressure and can cause death) Khat and Cathinone  From the Catha edulis plant used in Africa as early as the 1300’s  Use to be used in the form of a beverage- called Abyssinian tea  Now it is use by chewing the leaves and typically takes place in the afternoon or evening social party  Characterized by mild mental stimulation, feelings of contentment, mild psychomotor excitation, suppression of fatigue and the need for sleep, and anorexia  The active ingredient in Khat is cathinone  No a lot of evidence that this produces psychological dependence  For a long time this was not illegal in Canada and the untied states  Became illegal under the drug act in 1997  Still legal in the united kingdom (7 tonnes around each week)  A bundle of khat sells for about three pounds  Methcathinone, a slightly modified version was synthesized in the former soviet union (1930) to treat depression and has a history of dependence o Common street name is cat  Causes a release of dopamine in the VTA  Animals will self administer, users will often go on the drug binging for several days and they do not eat or sleep (may administer a dose every 30 minutes)  This is followed by a crash were they sleep (depressive moods)  Chronic use of methcathinone can cause destruction of dopaminergic neurons Coca and cocaine  Indigenous to northern part of south America and southern parts of central America  Can grow up to a height of ten feet and live 40 years  Evidence says use dates back to the 6 century A.D  Coca leaves were buried with the dead (pottery and statues often depicts the characteristics of cheek bulge as a chew)  Initially the Spanish conquerors tried to suppress the sue of coca (viewed as pagan ritual, and practice was meant to maintain the bonds between the native peoples)  It was noticed that workers could work longer with less food, the Spanish allowed for coca leaf chewing  You put a wad of it in the side of the cheek and ad and alkaline substance- this results in a mild mental and physical stimulation  The isolation of cocaine- 1859 by Albert Niemann  It could now be used as tonics and elixirs (where you put in alcohol)  Many favorable papers published about it  Sigmund Freud also gave it praise and sent packets of it with his letters, and later turned against it  Popular cocaine containing products were a variety of wines and drinks o First off the mark was Vin Mariani: developed by Angelo Mariani, marketed by using the finest French wine to extract the cocaine (content about 7mg/ounce). It was advertised as a ladies tonic and endorsed by a lot of important people (the sculptor of the statue of liberty) o John Pemberton produced and imitation drink called French wine cola, and then produced another that contained soda water and extract of the kola nut- known as Coca Cola (noted as the intellectual beverage and temperance drink) o It was used as a headache remedy, a tonic for the elderly and a remedy for melancholia o Was used for Coca Cola manufacturing in 1906 o Others were Coca-Bola, AZ-MA-SYDE, Dr. Tercher’s and Ryno Hay Fever Remedy  None of these are expensive to make, they are expensive because they are illegal  Use for medical use as a vasodilator- stop bleeding  Dr. Ernest Von Fleish- lost his thumb in a war injury, was addicted to morphine then was told to take cocaine, but then thought that there were things crawling on him  Cocarettes: cigarettes with cocaine (on the packaging there were stupid reasons for them: one drug neutralizes the other, they are good in delicate health- but smoking cocaine actually destroys the drug)  1900’s saw a shift in attitudes toward drugs (unfavorable)  If certain ethnic/minority groups used a drug, then the drug must be dangerous and should be banned  Government legislation requiring the listing of ingredients on patent medicine had been introduced  Cocaine was not in the first drug act but was in the second in 1911  They cracked down on it and between 1930 to 1945 the federal Bureau claimed that it was no longer an issue (perhaps due to the introduction of amphetamines)  There was a resurgence in 1950’s (stimulant of choice in the 1970’s) o Due to the growers becoming more organized and more ruthless  Largest use of the drug was between 1975 to 1980- due to the name the Cadillac of drugs used by the rich and famous  This could make people feel more famous (associate with the jet set) and the enormous sums of money that could be made, made more people get involved  Lifetime use aged 15 and older is 11%, university students 7%  Past year use among grade 7-12 is 3% Crack cocaine  Coca leaves are placed in a chemical solvent which extracts the cocaine from the coca leaves, the leaves are removed and acid, water and kerosene are added to the remaining liquid – the cocaine is trapped in the kerosene and then the cocaine is skimmed off (60% pure cocaine) this is called coca paste and then further treated with oxidizing agents to make white powder cocaine  This is now cocaine hydrochloride and can be injected or snorted  Crack is derived from cocaine by treating it with a alkaline solution like water and baking soda  This frees the base from the salt- this will volatize at lower temps and can be smoked  Popular because it can be smoked which makes the onset faster and it is sold in affordable quantities (sold in rocks) 75% cocaine for about $3-20  Euphoria is short lived, only lasting 10 to 20 minutes  Gets its name from the popping noise it makes while smoked Modifying Ephedrine: The Amphetamine  Synthesized in 1887  Methamphetamine was synthesized in 1919  Neither got much attention until the 1930’s  Ephedrine has respiratory stimulating and bronchodilator effects  Marketed under the name Benzedrine in the form of a nasal inhaler for the treatment of asthma (available without prescription)  Dexedrine- tablet form produced stimulation and was used for the treatment of narcolepsy, weight reduction and attention deficit disorder  Nasal inhalers could be made stronger if the nasal was cracked open and the cloth strip containing the amphetamine was removed to be either chewed, brewed, or placed on a cloth or in a large bag and used like a solvent  Benzedrine inhalers were cheap and easy to find at every local drugs store  Appeared at the right time because it was during alcohol prohibition, and the fall of cocaine  Was given to soldiers to combat fatigue (peaked during the second world war)  Huge surplus of amphetamines in japan after world war II  Popular in the united states and Canada – could still get straight from the pharmaceutical companies  High level of abuse originally started in the 1930’s  United states 1965- is when you needed a prescription for it  Was listed as a controlled medicine under the substances act of 1971  Early use of the drug was mostly via the oral route or inhaled- there were some injection use  1960’s- there was an increase in injection use (San Fran)  Started prescribing methamphetamine for heroin addiction  This mixture is known as speedball and fairly common among users  Injection use of the drug was viewed more negatively (painted an negative picture of the drug)  More restrictions were placed, became more associated with hard core criminal acts particularly among motorcycle gangs  Chronic use leads to psychotic behaviour and aggression  The term speed freak was coined to describe individuals that exhibited that type of behaviour  Decline of use in the 1970’s  Other amphetamines compounds that were synthesized: o Phenmetrazine: street name Bam, popular in the 1970’s, return of cocaine was its downfall  Ease of supply led to an increase in the use in the 1990’s (doesn’t have to be smuggled can be made from other ready chemicals)  Meth cookers can make it in a tub and supply many  One of the main ingredients in the production of methamphetamine is ephedrine or pseudoephedrine which is available in many of the counter nasal decongestants  This is why the sale of them is closely monitored  Why methamphetamine is injected it is called crank, and when smoked it is called ice  Used in the male homosexual community where it is referred to as Tina  Known as the most important drug abuse problem in the world and anticipated that it will continue to rise (easy production and cheap)  35 million people abuse amphetamines and 15 million abuse cocaine, followed by 10 million with heroin  Lifetime use of speed among Canadians 15 and older is 6%, with a 2:1 male to female ratio  Canadian undergraduate use was around 10% with 4% in the last year (high compared to most drugs)  Crack cocaine use expected to be around 6% Effects of Stimulants  Most produce the same effects: except cocaine has local anaesthetic effects and produces profound vasoconstriction  This is why cocaine is still considered a medical drug  Methamphetamine and methcathinone are potent  Half life of cocaine is 40 minutes- with a noticeable decline after 20  Amphetamine has a half life of 8 hours and declines after 4  They all activate the sympathetic nervous system – fight or flight reaction (increase BP, temp etc.)- Can be prominent in crack, this is why some people don’t use it again  The breakdown of cocaine when alcohol is also present is called cocaethylene o It has very potent effect on increasing blood pressure and heart rate, also increases the elimination half life of cocaine (25 fold increase in the risk of immediate death from simultaneous consumption of alcohol and cocaine) o Produces a high level of pleasure, cocaine both blocks the reuptake of dopamine, producing euphoria and activates serotonin (which actually reduces dopamine release) o Cocaethylene actually blocks the reuptake of dopamine  Stimulants produce euphoria- and this is why Freud said it could be useful in helping people who have depression (because it blocks the reuptake of dopamine)  Can be used to help the treatment of attention deficit disorder and used as diet pills  Thought it would enhance athletic performance: dated back to 1865 with swimmers from the Netherlands in a caffeinated beverage  Stimulants could prolong performance of physically exhausting tasks (only about 2%)  People have pointed out that these drugs that may aid in performance are lethal  Another potential effect is heightened sexuality (methamphetamine use is associated with heightened libido and unsafe sex practices in both heterosexual males and females)  Long term use is also associated with loss of interest in sex  Evidence in rats that it increased female sex drive as a result of the drugs dopaminergic effects  They increase motor behaviour- shown in humans and rats  Today motor behaviour is measured by photobeam boxes and computer technology  The behavioural rating system: o Shows the behaviour of rats when given stimulants o The differential behavioural effects are dose dependent but it is possible to produce any of the effects with a sufficiently single large dose o You can get sensitization clear evidence that you can get a 9 then a 4 o Rating scale:  1. Asleep  2. Inactive  3. In place activities such as grooming  4. Normal  5. Hyperactive (running rapid, jerky changes in position)  6. Slow patterned (move around the perimeter of the box)  7. Fast pattern (pace of movement increased)  8. Restricted (patterned behaviour is broken up by prolonged periods of remaining in one place and making repetitive movements with the head, legs or entire body- these behaviours are ritualistic and are called stereotypies)  9. Dyskinetic (convulsions, jumping in one place, maybe even death)  This is all due to the ability of stimulants to increase dopaminergic activity by causing the release and blocking the reuptake of dopamine  The estimated lethal dose of cocaine is around 1-2 grams if ingested and 700-800 if injected  Estimates for methamphetamines are as low as 150mg for lethal effect (effective dose 15mg)  BUT this being said that this is all relevant to who has taken the drug, the doses vary considerably  PAGE 125 MY OWN NOTES Stimulants in the treatment of ADD  Estimated that 5% of children below the age of seven have ADD  This can continue on into adulthood, but it is mostly found in males  There are two major symptoms of ADD: inability to focus and hyperactivity  The realization that stimulants may work as treatment occurred by accident  Happened when people with ADD were given spinal taps then complained of headaches (then they were given Benzedrine) – this lead to the treatment of the actual behavioural symptoms  Methylphenidate, amphetamine and methamphetamine are all used in the treatment  Improvements are noted in 80% of the cases where stimulants are used  They produce a focusing of attention, there usually isn’t abuse of people that take it for prescriptions, but by others who pressure them to give it to them  Prominent use (10%) – high risk people are white, part of a sorority or fraternity, low grade point average and being at a more competitive university  Nonmedical use is around 1%  There is substantial evidence for self administration and conditioned place preference  MY OWN NOTES -126  Typical pattern seen is very rapid, over a few days, increase the infusions and dose to the point of behavioural disruption sometimes caused by convulsions, seizures or even death followed by a period of no responding  The progressive ratio procedure has been used to examine reinforcing effectiveness among the stimulants and in comparison to there drugs  Found that stimulants produce some of the highest break points Chronic Administration of Stimulants  Tolerance: o There are some effects that show tolerance; let provided evidence that repeated dosing with either cocaine or amphetamine prior to the start of conditioned place preference training results in a more rapid development of a CPP than would otherwise occur o The dose response curve for the break point in a progressive ratio procedure was shifted to the right o In contrast others have reported no evidence for tolerance to the reinforcing effects - cocaine o Mendrek reported that amphetamine pre-exposure prior to a progressive ratio procedure actually shifted the dose response curve to the left o Summary- the rewarding effects of stimulants can actually intensify with chronic use o MY OWN NOTES- 127 o Something to note that when these procedures were done the doses were spaced a day apart- this is not the typical use of a user o If a stimulant is taken at very short intervals it will eventually lead to the depletion of dopamine – this produces a reduction in reward – this is not the same as chronic tolerance o Tolerance occurs to the appetite suppressing effects of stimulants but only under certain conditions o The development of tolerance to stimulant anorexia requires the contingent presentation of the stimulant and the availability of food to food deprived animals o Contingent tolerance procedure: must have drug food availability, and hungry rat) if you don’t have all of these then you will not have tolerance o There is an analogy on page 128  Sensitization: o Clearest effects of sensitization is to the behavioural activating effects of stimulants o This is a potential danger to people who use them on a regular basis – the drug may become capable of producing stronger and potentially adverse, maybe even lethal effects o Sensitization occurs to the behavioural effects of methylphenidate o It is unlikely to see these effects in humans (doses are higher- in the studies) o Cues associated with a drug may become capable of eliciting a drug compensatory response and that response might reduce the actual drug effect and contribute to tolerance o 129 Pavlovian example  Stimulant psychosis o Capable of producing schizophrenic like episodes o Stimulant psychosis seen in individuals who have been taking repeated doses over a short period or who take regular does over longer periods o First documentation of this was seen in Japan following world war II o Stimulant psychosis is characterized by unpredictable swings between intense emotion and blunted affect, hallucinatory phenomena, paranoid ideation in a setting of clear consciousness o People often report crawling bugs on them and will pick at these insect (formication syndrome- speed bugs) o It also produces obsessive compulsive behaviours in humans o Psychotic episodes can be induced by stimulants in individuals with no preexisting psychotic tendencies o These episodes occur more readily in individuals who were previously diagnosed individuals o Psychosis is due to excessive dopamine release- there is some potential for people taking stimulants to treat ADD it is unlikely because of the dosing schedule  Physical dependence o Stimulants are capable of producing compulsive drug seeking and drug taking, that there is clearly a mental or medical condition that can be called stimulant abuse or dependence, that stimulant abuse or dependence produces a host of harmful health, family, and social consequences and that sufferers are in need of treatment o Physical dependence is less robust than other drugs o One effect that it clear is REM rebound o Summary- they are used at a level where people find it hard to stop using them o People have to try and stop the occurrence of cravings for the drug – these cravings are associated with relapse o PET scanning has found increased glucose metabolism, indicative of enhanced neuronal activity in various brain regions when stimulant users saw stimulant related stimuli o These studies provide evidence that pre-drug cues alter brain activity which may be involved in relapse Neurochemical Effects of Stimulants  Alterations in dopaminergic activity are thought to be involved in virtually all of the most important effects of stimulants  Neurochemical reward system: o Pathways extend down fro the VTA and the nucleus accumbens and an increase in dopaminergic activity in the NAcc – called the mesolimbic, dopaminergic reward pathway o There also GABA neurons in the VTA that contact with the dopamine neurons and these GABA neurons normally act to inhibit the activity of dopamine neurons projecting to the NAcc  Stimulants act primarily on the dopamine projections to the NAcc, either by blocking the reuptake of released dopamine or by causing the release of dopamine from presynaptic terminals  A number of different types of dopamine receptors have been identified D1 through D5  D1 receptor is though to be the most important  The stimulants have two mechanisms by which they cause or prolong a period of dopaminergic neural activation  Some stimulants primarily cause the release of more dopamine per action potential or actually cause the leakage of dopamine in the absence of action potentials  Others primarily block the reuptake of released dopamine  The end result of both is longer dopaminergic neural activity  Lesions to the VTA or the NAcc also impair the ability of stimulants to support self administration or produce conditioned place preference  Stimulant blues: the rewarding effects with diminish- even if the person stops taking the stimulant they will often be depressed and unable to experience pleasure from normally pleasurable life events, a condition called anhedonia (due to a total depletion of dopamine)  Dopamine is continuously leaked from the presynaptic terminal and is not taken back up  With a long enough drug free period newly synthesized dopamine becomes available for release and the stimulant blues disappears  GBR (vanoxerine)- produced in the 1970’s for the treatment of depression- this drug blocks the reuptake of dopamine, in fact it is a more potent reuptake blocker than cocaine, but importantly it also inhibits the release of dopamine (result is very little psychomotor stimulation or euphoria (essentially an antagonist) but it has serious side effects Other potential harmful effects  Neurotoxic effects: o There is clear evidence for permanent brain damage o Stimulants result in decreased functioning and even neuron death in certain neurochemical path
More Less

Related notes for Psychology 2020A/B

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.