Psychology 2020A/B Study Guide - Final Guide: Acetaldehyde, Dopamine Receptor D1, Penicillin

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Published on 18 Apr 2013
School
Western University
Department
Psychology
Course
Psychology 2020A/B
Professor
Drugs and Behaviour
Study notes
Inhalants
If the drug is burned or heated in order to be inhaled- it is not classified as an inhalant
Inhalants include volatile hydrocarbons, solvents without any medical use, anaesthetic gases with some
medical uses, and a variety of nitrates
20% used by kids- popular because they are cheap and easily available, most likely a young persons first use
of an illicit drug is an inhalant
Use of solvents decrease after grade 7, use at around 60% in the Ontario student drug use in health survey
Anaesthetic Gases
Ether and chloroform
Spanish chemist Raymundus distilled alcohol and sulphuric acid together producing sweet vitriol
German chemist Frobinues gave sweet vitriol the name ether
Can be inhaled or swallowed but this is hard because of the burning sensation it produces
Easier when it is combined with alcohol- Hoffman’s drops, which are three parts alcohol and one part ether
(popular among women who were not supposed to drink alcohol in public)
1800’s alcohol was taxed- so these drops became increasingly popular because it was used to get drunk
Chloroform was synthesized in 1831, similar to ^ but it is more potent
Nitrous oxide
Known as laughing gas- discovered by Sir Joseph Priestly
Used in parties because it produces a euphoric effect that last for a short amount of time then produces a
feeling of well being
Sometimes you can get ringing in the ears as a side effect
When people use whip cream cans recreationally it is called whippets
Sometime people inflate a balloon with it and then pass it around
Use reclined in the 1980’s
It is popular as a club drug or an after dinner drug, and is given the popular name of hippie crack
Danger is hypoxia: lack of oxygen, or permanent nerve damage followed by excessive use (due to the
inactivation of vitamin B12 dependent enzyme)
There has been demonstrations of physical dependence in mice- this can be eliminated f the rat is given
nitrous oxide
Opiate antagonists do not induce withdrawal but they do block the effects
Human users are not likely to get these effects because they do not use enough recreationally
All anaesthetic gases increase GABA-mediated inhibition, reduce effectiveness of NMDA, enhance the
effects of glycine
Evidence of a conditioned place avoidance, but some evidence of self administration, there are rewarding
effects, but not like other drugs
Solvents
Toluene containing substances have the highest level of potential abuse
o May have hallucinogenic effects because it activates the mesolimbic dopaminergic system
o It enhances GABA and glycine
o It produces self administration and conditioned place preference
There are many household items that can be used to produce an effect
Solvent users are not emotionally the same as other drug users
Solvent abuse and antisocial personality disorder are highly correlated
Popular ways of administration:
o Huffing (soaking the cloth in the substance
o Bagging (filling the bag with the solvent)
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Solvents are highly lipid soluble
The onset of solvents is very rapid- people usually expose themselves to more than 50 times the industrial
use
The term quick drunk has been used effects produces 109
Tolerance and physical dependence to not seem to appear
Shown (tolerance and withdrawal) in animals absences of tolerance and withdrawal may be due to the
amount the person is exposed to
Chronic solvent users are worse off then chronic cocaine users less cognitive functioning
There is evidence of fetal solvent syndrome
There have been efforts to reduce use, making a parent be there when industrial glues are sold or making
them more expensive, but these fail because they are so readily available
Nitrites
Include amyl, butyl and isobutyl, they are yellow, flammable and have a fruity odor
Synthesized in 1867
Tolerance comes from studies involving workers who were exposed over long periods of time
Amyl nitrate prescription drug that is used as an antidote for cyanide poisoning and angina pain
Butyl and isobutyl are not used medically but can be bought in sex shops
Commercially available nitrates often show their association with sex: Thrust, heart on, toilet water etc.
Abused nitrates are often known as poppers
They are vasodilators
They relax smooth muscle and control blood vessel and sphincter diameter
The effects of these drugs are rapid
Tolerance does develop to most of the effects
There are withdrawal symptoms shown
They are intended to be inhaled only, when the are ingested orally the can cause suffocation- they reduce
the carrying capacity of oxygen molecules
Steroids
Estimated that one third of college athletes use steroids
(6% males and 2% females) high school users
Goldman “if you found a drug that would let you win all of your competitions, but they you would die,
would you use it “ – 50% said yes
Use of steroids driven by people who want the ideal body shape
Drive for muscularity- dysmorphia
Cholesterol is the main building block of steroids
Natural ones: females estrogen and progesterone, cortisol released by adrenal glands in response to stress
Abused steroids are called anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS)
Developed in 1930 to treat hypergonadism (testes don’t produce sufficient testosterone for growth)
Used in the soviet union in the 1954 Olympics
They typically increase muscle mass in the upper body
The drugs taken orally are subjected to the “first pass” where they are metabolized by the live, so they can
be injected
They have masculinizing effects, hence the name androgenic (male sex hormones are androgens)
Medical does is about 100 mg per week (males who produce too little testosterone)
Abuse patterns: stacking or pyramiding person takes it for several weeks starting with low doses and then
increases the does regularly, then it is again reduced so hopefully It will go undetected
Abusers usually take excess of 1000mg per week
They provide a variety of adverse effects (stunt growth, decrease HDL but increase LDL, testicular atrophy,
reduced libido, painful erections, breast enlargement, male pattern baldness, in women deepen voice, more
hair, enlarged clitoris, and irregular menstruation)
Riod rage- aggression in users
And there is also an increase in manic episodes- extreme positive mood rapid speech, racing thoughts
These are not self administered, users have some unsettling symptoms when they stop the drug
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There is agreement that steroids produce conditions necessary for the diagnosis of drug dependence
according to the DSM-IV criteria
Stimulants
Ma Huang and Ephedrine
Earliest recognized- is a Chinese herb that comes from a leafless, desert shrub known as the horsetail plant
Ma- means pungent and Huang- means yellow (accurately depicts the plant)
Main active ingredient- sympathomimetic ephedrine and pseudoephedrine
Because ephedrine is a vasodilator it is available over the counter for asthma
and nasal decongestion
Ephedrine intended for legitimate medical reasons is often diverted into the
illegal production of methamphetamine
Ephedra- used to found in certain natural weight loss and energy boosting
preparations since it produces the burning of fat (combined with caffeine)
Ephedra has now been banned for Canada and the united states (because it
causes an increase in temp, blood pressure and can cause death)
Khat and Cathinone
From the Catha edulis plant used in Africa as early as the 1300’s
Use to be used in the form of a beverage- called Abyssinian tea
Now it is use by chewing the leaves and typically takes place in the afternoon or evening social party
Characterized by mild mental stimulation, feelings of contentment, mild psychomotor excitation,
suppression of fatigue and the need for sleep, and anorexia
The active ingredient in Khat is cathinone
No a lot of evidence that this produces psychological dependence
For a long time this was not illegal in Canada and the untied states
Became illegal under the drug act in 1997
Still legal in the united kingdom (7 tonnes around each week)
A bundle of khat sells for about three pounds
Methcathinone, a slightly modified version was synthesized in the
former soviet union (1930) to treat depression and has a history of dependence
o Common street name is cat
Causes a release of dopamine in the VTA
Animals will self administer, users will often go on the drug binging for several days and they do not eat or
sleep (may administer a dose every 30 minutes)
This is followed by a crash were they sleep (depressive moods)
Chronic use of methcathinone can cause destruction of dopaminergic neurons
Coca and cocaine
Indigenous to northern part of south America and southern parts of central America
Can grow up to a height of ten feet and live 40 years
Evidence says use dates back to the 6th century A.D
Coca leaves were buried with the dead (pottery and statues often depicts the characteristics of cheek bulge
as a chew)
Initially the Spanish conquerors tried to suppress the sue of coca (viewed as
pagan ritual, and practice was meant to maintain the bonds between the
native peoples)
It was noticed that workers could work longer with less food, the Spanish
allowed for coca leaf chewing
You put a wad of it in the side of the cheek and ad and alkaline substance- this
results in a mild mental and physical stimulation
The isolation of cocaine- 1859 by Albert Niemann
It could now be used as tonics and elixirs (where you put in alcohol)
Many favorable papers published about it
Sigmund Freud also gave it praise and sent packets of it with his letters, and later turned against it
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Document Summary

If the drug is burned or heated in order to be inhaled- it is not classified as an inhalant. Inhalants include volatile hydrocarbons, solvents without any medical use, anaesthetic gases with some medical uses, and a variety of nitrates. 20% used by kids- popular because they are cheap and easily available, most likely a young persons first use of an illicit drug is an inhalant. Use of solvents decrease after grade 7, use at around 60% in the ontario student drug use in health survey. Spanish chemist raymundus distilled alcohol and sulphuric acid together producing sweet vitriol. German chemist frobinues gave sweet vitriol the name ether. Can be inhaled or swallowed but this is hard because of the burning sensation it produces. Easier when it is combined with alcohol- hoffman"s drops, which are three parts alcohol and one part ether (popular among women who were not supposed to drink alcohol in public)

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