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Drugs final.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course
Psychology 2020A/B
Professor
Prof
Semester
Winter

Description
Inhalants: - Un-like other drugs, inhalants are grouped together by method of administration - Substance needed to be burned or heated to be inhaled not included in inhalants - Include violatile hydrocarbons, solvents without medical use, anesthetic gases (nitrous oxide, ether, chloroform) and a variety of nitrates (amyl, butyl, isobutyl) - Solvents popular among young drug users, in impoverished areas - America daily use= 20% among “street children”, due to low cost, easy access, rapid onset. Young persons first drug most likely an inhalant - Lifetime use of all Canadians 15+ = 1%, gr 7-12=6% and higher in earlier grades Anaesthetic Gases Ether and Chloroform: - Spanish chemist Ray Lullius distilled alch and sulpheric acid together making “ sweet vitriol”, which was introduced to medicine under Hoffman in late 1600s - Frobineus (German chemist) gave name ether meaning heavenly - Recreationally used since 1700s in form of ether frolics - Ether can be inhailed or drunk, but difficult to swallow burns mouth and throat and causes vomiting - Late 1800s took with alch called Hoffmans drops (3 part alch, 1 part ether) - Popular tonic among women, ether used as alch substitute - During alch bans, penny for a tbs of ether - Ether abuse increased in Can and US during alch probitions in 1920s - Abuse in germany during WW2, abuse rare today tho - Chloroform synthisyzed in 1831, more potent than ether - Samual Guthrie an american discovered chloroform Nitrous Oxide: - known as N20 or laughing gas, discovered 1776 by sir Joseph Priestly - many chemists synthesized it for recreational use and partys - produces euphoria that lasts several min and sense of well being for hours - effects are analgesia, giddiness, dreaminess, ringing ears, loss of consciousness - N02 used as a propellant in food stuffs, inhail gas from cans (whip cream dispensers “whippets” used recreationally - Inflated in ballon and passed around friends. Use on decline until reacently - increase in use especially in young adults, after dinner or club drug, street name of “hippie crack” - generally considered safe but danger of hypoxia (lack of 02) and nerve damage - nerve dam result of inactivation of B12 dependant enzyme - evidence that endogenous opiate system involved in the analgesic effects of N02 since opiate antagonists block these effects - opiate antag doesn’t induce withdrawl so not involved in dependence - Thought that all the anaesthetic gases increase GABA mediated inhibition - Evidence anaesthetic gases enhance effects of glycine (inhibitory neurotransmitter) and reduce effectiveness of the NMDA receptor for glutamate - Evidence for conditioned place avoidance and self admin. N02 rewarding effect in infrahuman, effects r less robust with rec used drugs. GABA is probably involved Solvents: - house hold products containing psychoactive substances such as hobby glue, paint thinners, lighter fluid, fingernail polish, felt markers, hair spray fry pan spray - toluene containing substances have highest abuse potential - gasoline also inhalant solvent - solvent abuse and antisocial disorder are highly correlated(not for other inhalants) - solvent admin thru soaking cloth “huffing” or spraying in bag “bagging” - psychoactive ingredient in solvents are highly lipid soluble - toluene prototypical solvent most research focused on - evidence toluene and other solvents have euphor, halluc and rewarding effects - toluene activates the mesolimbic dopaminergic reward system - tolu produce conditioned place preference,supports nosepoking self admin in mice - neuro chem action of tolu similar to nitrous oxide,enhancement of GABA /glycine - onset of solvent rapid and lasts only 1 hour - users expose to more that 50x max limit for industrial use effects of “quick drunk” - deaths from solvents due to accidents from muscle weakness and disorientation - tolerance and dependence don’t appear in human users, withdrawl symptoms readily produced in animals (absence of tol and dep due to duration and exposure) - comparison of chronic solvent and chronic cocaine abuser (10 years) show impairment in cog function in both but solvent significantly worse - MRI scans show abnormality and degeneration (cerebellum) ,organ/nerve damage - fetal solvent syndrome include low bw, microcephaly, facial/ digit abnormalities - attempts to restrict sales of model glues and adding irritants (mustard oil) but efforts offset by ready avail of alternatives Nitrates: - nitrates include amyl, butyl and isobutyl nitrate, yellow volatile flammable liquids with fruity odor - first synth and used medically in 1867, nitrates related to nitroglycerin (explosive substance with evidence of tol and dep from long term workers in the factories) - amyl only avail thru prescription (angina pain and antidote to cyanide poisoning) - butyl and isobutyl not used medically, can be mail ordered or found in sex shop - particularly involving male homosexuals (aroma of man, climax, heart on ect) - abused nitrates referred to as “poppers” due to sound made when medical practice accesses it - nitrates are vasodilators, used to treat angina and congestive heart failure - nitrates relax smooth muscles that control diameter of blood vessels, the iris, and anal sphincter - effects incluse euphoria, increase libido, dilation of genetals, penile engorgement, sphincter dilation, delayed ejac, headache, flushing etc - effects rapid (30 sec) lasting 5 min followed by nausea and vomiting - tolerance can develop to moth effects of nitrates and has a withdrawal syndrome - nitrates intended for inhalation only, oral ingestion causes serious problems as a result of reduced oxygen carrying capacity of blood STEROIDS: - steroid use most common for professional athletes - est that 1/3 collage and pro athletes use steroids, higher in certain sports - 6% male and 2% female high school students use steroids - Goldman questioned athletes that of they could win using steroids but then would die after would they use them? 50% said yes - large scale synthetic steroids were not developed until the 1930s, but there is a long history use of nonsteroidal drugs in attempt to enhance athletic performance - steroids primarily build muscle mass and speed recovery from training and injury - young use them for perceived ideal body shape, males muscular and females lean - cholesterol main bulk of steroids, steroids are chemicals naturally in the body - estrogen and progesterone steroids found in females - cortisol normally released by adrenal glands in response to stress - Anabolic-androgenic steroids mostly abused (AAS) - AAS developed in 1930s to treat hypogonadism - animal studies saw increase muscle mass/ faster recovery leading to ath interest - 1954 unofficial start to modern use steroid by sov union weightlifters in Olympics - medical use for delayed puberty, impotence, wasting diseases like HIV and AIDS - anabolic refers to capacity of steroids to promote muscle growth - anabolic very effective in building muscle mass in women, greater in the upper body (swimmers) - androgenic (male se hormones) have musicalizing effects - anabolic are male hormones from testosterone - anab and andro differ in metabolic breakdown in liver - drugs injected to bypass first metabolism - substances take to increase muscle mass (weightlifters) and prevent muscle breakdown (endurance athletes) - for medical use, dosing involves a steady low level dose aprox 100mg per week - abuse involves stacking, by taking drug for 1-18 weeks from low to high dose up to 1000mg per week - anabolic steroids are controlled substance in Canada and the US - ideal steroid would have strong anabolic effect and week androgenic effect to minimize masculization. But they produce stunted growth (bones close over), lower HDL and raise LDL increasing heart disease risk - in men cause testicular atrophy, impaired sperm production, reduced libido, painful erection, severe ache (upper back), breast enlargement (bitch tits) - in women cause deepen voice, increase body hair, male pattern baldness, menstrual cessation, enlarged clitoris - psychiatric consequences of steroid abuse are aggression, violence “roid rage” - anabol ster not self admin by infrahumans - symptoms occur when stop use: fatigue, depression, loss of appetite, insomnia, headaches - not unanimously agree that there is dependence but agree it fits dependence model STIMULANTS: - naturally occurring plant substances that have psychomotor stimulating effects Ma Huang and Ephedrine: - among earliest recognized and used of plant psychostimulants - Ma Huang is a chinese herb from a leafless desert shrub called horsetail plant - Pungent taste and yellow colour, use as far back as 5100 years ago - Active ingredient is ephedrine and psudoephedrine - Ephedrine is a bronchodilator in OTC medication for asthma/ nasal decongestion - Ephedrine often converted into illegal methamphetamine from decongest pills - Ephedra with caffeine is a “natural” weight loss and energy boost (hydroxycut/metabolife) but is now banned from products in US and Canada Khat and Cathinone: - khat from the Catha edulis plant chronicled in Africa since 1300s - early use in a beverage called Abyssinian tea, now a days chew leaves - use is very extensive in Ojibouti, Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia and Yemen - Chewing khat leaves causes mild mental stim, feeling of contentment, psycho excitement, suppressant of fatigue and need for sleep, anorexia - Active ingredient in Khat is cathinone - produces psychological dependence, less sure about physical dependence - wasn’t illegal in Can and US until 1997 under controlled drugs and substances act - plant legal in UK, 7 tonnes arrive weekly, available in street stores for 3 pounds - methcathinone is a modified version syntheszyed in Sov Un 1930 for depression - methcat made spuratic and limited appearances in NA, street name “cat” - causes a release of dopamine in the VTA producing euphoric effects - animals will self admin methacatinone - people go on methacat binges (sim to methamph) lasting days with no sleep or eat - during binges they admin about every 30 min with each dose costing $20 - binge followed by a crash, user sleeps for long periods and has depressed mood - some evidence of chronic use resulting in destruction of dopaminergic neurons Coca and Cocaine: - leaves of coca plant most important of all plant sub that affect CNS - coca plant is indigenous to north and south America and central am - coca plant can grow up to 10 ft and life span of 40 years - coca use dates back to 1000bc clear evidence of use from th cent AD - coca leaves buried with the dead, found in Andean mummies - pottery and statues depict characteristics with cheek bulge of coca chew - coca cultivation present during inca empire (1250-1550 - fairly wide spread amoung all segments of native pop - Spanish conquer tried to suppress use because viewed as a pagan ritual so contrary to catholic church role, and maintained bond between native people which conquers wanted to dissolve - realized native people could work longer with less food if they chewed coca so Spanish them allowed leaf chewing - today coca leaf chewing involves wad of leaves and alkaline substance to increase and facilitate absorption of the cocaine base (results mild mental/ physical stim) - leaves went to Europe by Spanish in 1600, attracted little attention due to method of chewing, but changed with the isolation of cocaine in 1859 by albert niemann - Cocaine was then used in tonics and elixirs in method more pop to Europe / NA - This created a lot of excitement, praised by sigmud freud (included packets in his letters to fiancé and friends) eventually truned against “scourages of humankind” - In 1800s cocaine very popular in wine and drinks - Vin Mariani developed by Angelo in 1863, used finest French wine to extract it - Content est at 7mg/ounce, and advertised as ladies tonic, important people used to - Vin Mariana endorsed by 6 presidents of france, president of argentina, 3 popes, 2 US presidents, prince of wales, czar of Russia, Thomas Edison,surgeon gen of US - Fred Bartholdi sculptor us statue of liberty loved vin saying it brightened his staff and the statue of lib would be several 100 meters if he had it when he made it. - Us John Pemberton made fake version of Vin called French Wine Cola in 1885 - Pemberton then developed coca cola- cocaine with soda and kola nut touted as “the intellectual beverage and temperance drink” - Cocaine removed from coca cola in 1906 - Other cocaine products in the 1800s = Coca Bola- 3/4g per oz, AZ-MA-SYDE- 4.5g per oz, Dr.Teachers-1/2g per oz, Ryno Hay Fever Remedy- 90% pure cocain - 1900s were dramatic shift for drugs, linked to crime and racial minority groups - gov leg required listing ingredients on patent medicine (pure food drug act 1906) - cocaine excluded from first drug leg passed in 1908, included in 1911 leg - cocaine seemed to no longer be a problem according to US Federal Bereau, may be due to newly recognized amphetamines in 1930s - cocaine begain resurgence in 1950s, stim of choice 1970-8190s - this resulted as traffickers became organized, better business men, more ruthless - admission for coc abuse showed largest increase for any drug in 1975-1980 - was known as the “Cadillac” of drugs used by rich and famous - mid1980s new form called crack appeared - cocaine leaves placed in solvent which extracts it, leaves are removed and acid, water and kerosene added. Coc traped by kerosene and floats to top, skimmed then dried for about 60% pure cocaine called coca paste - coca paste may be smoked but is further processed to produce white powder called cocaine hydrochloride which is 99% pure - takes 400lb cocaine leaves to make 1 lb cocaine - in form of coc hydro it can be snorted or injected, cant be smoked as it destroys it - so crack is derived by treating it with an alkaline like water and baking soda which “frees the base” from salt so can be smoked - crack popular as smoking produces rapid and intense effect without injecting and it can be marketed at affordable quantities - crack sold as rocks (65-110)mg about 75% coc can be $3-20 - euphoria produced by crack is 10-20 min which required continues admin - the difference between crack and cocaine is the method of administration - life time use Can 15+ was 11% & past year 2%, Can Uni life time 7% &past year 2%, Ontario gr 7-12 past year use 3% MODIFYING EPHEDRINE: THE METHANPHETAMINES - amphetamine ( Benzedrine, Dextrine, Adderall) first synthesized in 1887 in search for substitute for ephedrine - Methamphetamines ( Methedrine, Desoxyn) synthesized in 1919 - Available but not common in the late 1800s, neither gained attention until 1930s - 1932 Smith, Kline, French marketed amphetamine, trade name Benzedrine as form of nasal inhaler for asthma, nasal congestion from colds and allergies - Benzedrine avail without prescription and were cheap found in all drug stores - confirmed amphetamine produced stimulation, Dexedrine tablet marketed 1937 - Dexedrine recommended for treatment of narcolepsy, weight reduction, ADD - Intro of Benz made people aware of psychostim effect, and made stronger if nasal cracked open and cloth strip removed to be chewed, brewed, or used like a solvent - Intro of cheap and avail Benz coincided with the Alch probation in US and decline use of cocaine in 1920s. Amph appeared at just the right time - Benz taken by collage and uni students “pep pills” or “pepper- uppers” - Military used amph to combat fatigue, peaked in WW2 - Adolph Hitler used 8 inj a day, produced bazar and paranoid behaviors - Huge surplus in japan following ww2 so easily sold leading to high levels of use - Amph use growing in Can and US in 1950s, still able to obtain easily thru pharm - High levels of abuse started in 1930s thru 1960s with little gov attention and Law - 1965 US needed prescription for amph, listed in controlled substance act in 1971 - early use was oral or inhaled, some injections, in 1960 huge increase in injection in San Fran, some docs in the area prescribed methan for treatment of herion - ironic as amph and herion (or cocaine) were mixed to create “speed ball” - intravenous injection reported to produce a “rush” or whole body orgasm - injection use painted negative picture so increased amph use seen as negative - more restrictions were placed, distribution became associated with criminal elements (mostly biker gangs) - recognition that chronic use of amph lead to psychotic and aggressive behavior - “speed freak” named to those with the psychotic aggressive behavior - meth/amph declined since 1970s due to negative pic of drug and increase law - other amph were synthesized, Phenmetrazine (obesity drug known as “bam”) - Cocaine returned in 1970s and filled void over amphetamines -
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