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Psychology 2020A/B
Riley Hinson

DRUGS AND BEHAVIOUR MIDTERM ONE Psychoactive effects: alterations in cognitive, behavioural, and motor processes Ex- eurphoria, hallucinations, increased libido Pharmacodynamics: how drugs assert your receptors from administration to how they leave - how long it takes to kick in, is usually how long it lasts for Drug Names Chemical  type of molecule and the location of chemical groups on the molecule  Ex- 1.3.7 trimethylxantine, the chemical name for caffeine  Helps in understanding how drugs are related (morphine and heroin are two acetyl groups apart, meaning heroin more rapidly enters the brain, is more rewarding and addictive) Generic or nonproprietary  Commonly used name  Can be used by any company marketing the drug  Ex- fluoxetine, triazolam, and diazepam Trade or Proprietary  Given by a company and can only be used by that company  Ex- Prozac, halcion, valium Street  Are often derivatives or trade names or refer to some aspect of the drug Pharmacokinetics: administration, absorption, distribution, metabolism, and elimination Routes of Administration Oral  Must pass from stomach or small intestines into the bloodstream  Since stomach is so acidic, most drugs are destroyed here  Drugs that are alkaline, become ionized in the stomach and cannot pass out in the bloodstream  Go into small intestine, which can be partially absorbed into bloodstream  Goes to the liver before having access to the CNS  Liver is the major site of drug metabolism Mucous Membranes  Nasally, rectally, vaginally  Cocaine causes nasoconstriction when snorted Across Skin  Accidental drug administration  Route of accidental poisoning  Transdermal patches for nicotine  Nicotine is the most potent naturally occurring plant in the world (being used in pesticides) Pulmonary or Inhalation  Must be in a gaseous or vaporized form  Can reach the brain in about 7 sec  Peaks every 7 sec  strong potential for abuse  Huffing and bagging Injection  Intravenous, called mainling, reaches the brain in about 14 sec  Subcutaneous, called skinpopping  underneath the skin, not muscles, causes bad scarring  Intramuscularly  usually medically  Intraperitoneal  most common in animal research Distribution of Drugs  Bloodstream is the “highway” for drugs to get to the brain  Drugs must cross the blood-brain barrier Ionization: does the molecule carry some sort of charge  Ionized molecules don’t cross blood brain barrier easily  Highly ionized molecules are not lipid soluble  Lipid soluble compunds penetrate cell membranes more easily- cross blood brain barrier easily Receptor Binding  Agonist: mimcs the effect of a neurotransmitter o binds to receptors, can block reuptake or inhibit metabolic breakdown o Ex- cocaine increases dopamine activity  Antagonist: reduce the effects of a receptor agonist by binding to active receptors but producing no pharmacological action o Ex- naloxone, often used as therapy, is an opiate receptor antagonist  Are also agonist-antogonist- when one is administered with a more potent agonist, they reduce the stronger agonists effect because they occupy receptors and produce a small effect, but prevent the more potent agonist from occupying the receptors to produce a larger effect  Usually affect neurotransmitters (can be excitatory or inhibitory)  If its in the synapse it has the ability to bind again  Some that also destroy the neurotransmitter (MAO used to treat depression)  Most common way it is terminated reuptake: o When they attach and become unbound and taken back up to the presynaptic element, and is sotred there o Ex- cocaine releases dopamine and blocks reuptaketoo much dopamine (pleasure) The Neuron  Tiny space separating the pre- and post- synaptic elements is called the synapse  An action potential arriving at an axon terminal can cause the release from the presynaptic element of substances known as neurotransmitters  Neurotransmitter substances are stored in synaptic vesicles in the axon terminal of the presynaptic element  Arriving action potential causes these vesicles to attach to the presynaptic membrane and open, excluding the stored neurotransmitter  Excluded neurotransmitter crosses the synaptic cleft where it binds to receptor elements on the postsynaptic membrane Neurochemical Mechanisms of Drug Action Neurotransmitter Synthesis. A drug may increase or decrease the synthesis of 
neurotransmitters. Neurotransmitter Transport. A drug may interfere with transport of neurotransmitter molecules to the axon terminals. Neurotransmitter Storage. A drug may interfere with the storage of neurotransmitters in the vesicles of the axon terminal. Neurotransmitter Release. A drug may cause the axon terminals to prematurely release neurotransmitter molecules into the synapse. Neurotransmitter Degradation. A drug may influence the breakdown of neurotransmitters by enzymes. Neurotransmitter Reuptake. A drug may block the reuptake of neurotransmitters into the axon terminals. Receptor Activation. A drug may activate a receptor site by mimicking a neurotransmitter. Receptor Blocking. A drug may cause a receptor to become inactive by blocking it. Neurotransmitters  Acetycholine o Learning and memory (Alzheimers) o THC, hallucinogens  Dopamine and Norepinephrine o Dopamine- pleasure, movement, schizophrenia o Norepinephrine- mood and affect  Serotonin o Mood, sex, appetite, sleep, hallucinations, aggression o Prozac- SSRI  Amino Acid- glutamate and GABA o Glutamate- excitatoryneural plasticity o GABA- inhibitory anxiety Termination of Drug Action  Through skin: sweat  Exhalation: “sour alcohol breath”  P450 enzyme family is primary drug agent involved in drug metabolism  Most often metabolized in the liver  When drugs are broken down they become ionized, less lipid soluble and larger making them easier to be excreted  Drugs-bases, urine-acidic, becomes ionized and is easily excreted  Urine becomes acidic when stressed- smokers will smoke more when stressed Elimination Half life - time needed for half of a drug dose to be eliminated from the body - takes about 6 half lives for most of a drug to be eliminated and for a person to be considered drug free Dose Response Curve:  vertical  % of individuals that show the effect  horizontal  dose  ie- If I give this dose, what type of response is shown?  ED50: the dose of the drug that is effective in producing a response in 50% of subjects  LD50: dose which kills 50% of subjects  Ex- sleep induction- whats the difference between what will kill 50% and what will cause effects in 50%  Therapeutic index: LD50/ED50the higher the ratio, the safer. Margin of safety is the dose required to produce effect in 99%, that kills 1%  Tolerance is a shift to the right in the dose response curve  will cause opposite effects in withdrawal  Sensitization is a shift to the left in DRC Physical Dependance  Occurrence of withdrawal symptoms upon cessation of the drug  Withdrawal symptoms often directly opposite to the effect of the drug  Severity of withdrawal is closely related to the rate at which brain concentration of drug drops  Withdrawal can be experienced even when some drug is still in the brain  Development is closely related to drug tolerance  Take more of a drug, causes negative reinforcement prevent or terminate adverse state of affairs Classical Conditioning and Tolerance  Tolerance may present problems in achieving effective medication, dose must be increased to receive desired effect  Need to consinuously increase dose may expose patient to undesirable effect of higher doses, may increase the likelihood that the patient will develop a physical dependence  Pavlov: o CS: stimulus which does not elicit response at the beginning is repeatedly paired with o UCS: stimulus that does elicit response of interest, the response it elicited is the o UCR: if the CS is paired enough times with the UCS, the CS comes to elicit a response called the CR  Some students in Pavlov’s lab used scopolamine (reduces secretions) as a UCS to produce a UCR of dryness paradoxical conditioning  CR’s strengthen, grow bigger and occur sooner, as the number of CS-UCS pairing increases, the degree to which the drug effect is reduced by the opposing CR should increase over the course of drug administrations characteristic of tolerance Situational Specification of Drug Tolerance (see book page 12) Placebo CR Test  Should be possible to see the drug compensatory CR if the CS predrug cues are presented and the expected drug is not administered  Animal or person is made to expect the drug by presenting the usual predrug cues, but the drug is not actually given  Test phase all animals would receive a saline injection Subclinical Withdrawal Symptoms: not so severe as to require medical attention but disturbing to the patient. Most likely drug compensatory CRs being elicited by usual CS predrug cues Extinction (see page 15) Self Administration on animals: insertion in jugular so the drug gets administered quickly. Ex- rat pushes a lever connected to a syringe that administers drug Schedule of Reinforcement: conditions the animal must meet to continue infusion  Ratio: requires a certain number of responses for infusion  Researchers usually vary the number of responses  Typically if they have unlimited access, they binge Progressive ratio: progressively increase the number of responses to get drug  Ability to gauge the relative reinforcing properties of different drugs, in relation to other reinforcers like food, water, or sex  Animal is trained to press a bar to receive drug infusion  Initially the number of bar presses is low, but once the animal is shown the willingness to pay that amount of behavior for the drug, the researcher can increase the price (more bar presses)  Largest number of responses that the animal will make to obtain the drug is called the break point  Break points of different drugs may be compared to determine their relative reinforcing value Alcohol  has been fermented, and occurs naturally in any item that has sugars or starches than may be converted to sugars  many naturally occurring items have sugars and wild yeast are almost always found on such items, therefore fermentation occurs accidently and alcohol containing liquids have been around for many years History  Mead: fermented honey, first alcoholic drink  were a normal part of ancient Egypt, Chinese, Babylonian, and Indian societies around 5000-2000 BC  moderation was the norm  laws concerning alcoholic beverages were directed to the production and sale  wine was a regular part of Greek society (wine kraters)  cult of Dionysus was devoted to heavy drinking since it was believed that intoxication brought one closer to the gods  commonplace in Rome, were the worlds first wine connoisseurs were usually trying to “one up” friends and neighbours  several writers wrote about the
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