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Psychology 2020A/B Test 2 Review.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course
Psychology 2020A/B
Professor
Riley Hinson
Semester
Fall

Description
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome History  Greek and Roman mythology – bridal couples forbidden to drink wine on wedding night in order that a defective offspring might not be conceived  Plato – No alcohol for man or women wishing to conceive  Aristotle maternal alcohol consumption and fetal deficits Sullivan – babies of alcoholic women vs. Babies of nonalcoholic relatives  Infant death/ stillbirth rate 2 and a half times higher Robinovitch  Most common characteristics – feeble memory, inability to learn, lack of perceptions of ordinary duties of life Features Dysmorphic features/ craniofacial features  Primary identifying features Fetal Growth Deficiencies  Reduced birth weight, length, and head circumference o 2 SD below average  Third trimester – length and weight  Little or no postnatal recovery  Not due to prenatal nutritional deficiencies Behavioral Abnormalities and Physical Delays  Delays sitting, walking, crawling, and speech production  Jittery, irritable and easily distracted with low attention span  Hyperactivity  Learning and memory impairments –inhibiting of responses  Impairs response inhibition mechanisms Mental Retardation and CNS Abnormalities  85% score lower than 2 SD below average  Present throughout life  Small brain size, incomplete cortical development, disorientation of neuronal and glial elements  First trimester Sampson - 3-5/1000 live births  Fetal Alcohol Effects (FAE) and Alcohol Related Neurodevelopmental Disorder (ARND) o 10 Cases/1000 live births Risk  Increased once daily consumption reaches 6 drinks  As little as 2  Binge drinking: BAC compared to # of drinks, more important  2.5 million babies in US each year with risky iUAE Caffeine 80% of world population consumes some drink with caffeine Coffee 100g Tea 50g Xanthines  Protective purpose  bugs eat it, increased octopamine  overexcitation and death o Octopamine – ecofriendly pesticide, no effect on mammals  Dimethylxanthines – theophylline and theobromine – similar effects to those of caffeine  Methylxanthines – Caffeine o Coffee, tea, yerba mate, guarana, kola nut, cacao)  Yerba –steep leaves  Guarana – brew roasted berries Tea  50 mg per standard cup  Theophylline – equipotent to caffeine as stimulant  Green teas – polyphenols – prevent heart disease and cancer  Green tea and black tea – same leaf BUT black leaves are fermented destroying polyphenols History  Chinese emperor liked water boiled, tea leaves fell in, he liked it  Europe 1500’s: England(forced trade for opium – Opium Wars of the mid 1800s) and Russia (samovars)  First shipment to Canada – Hudson’s Bay Coffee  100 mg per standard cup  Caffeine – only xanthine in coffee History  Ethiopia Goats  Coffee berries were chewed, later fermented and juices drank  Roasting and grinding later Africa and Middle East  Religious Coffee Ban – an intoxicant like alcohol  1633 Sultan Murad IV – closed down all coffee houses – sewn inside a leather bag and tossed in the river  Introduced to Europe by Ottoman through trade, diplomacy, and conflict  Europe: Coffee = wine of islam”  England 1600s: Coffee houses o King Charles II Ban o Political dissent was often “brewing” at the same time as coffee  Penny universities – coffeehouses had intellectual environment of universities, but less cost Cola Drinks  40 mg in standard can  Caffeine from caffeine removed in decaffeinating coffee Statistics  Canadians - ____ Liters/year  US world leader - _____ Liters/year  ______% of caffeine is added – kola nut: very little caffeine Energy Drinks  80 -150 mg in standard  Caffeine added/ partly derived from guarana  Acute improvements in cognitive performance and mood (caffeine)  Consumption associated with higher level of alcohol consumption Pills and Candy  Pills: NoDoz (100 mg), Vivarin (200 mg) – Full bottle = fatal o Attempted suicides o Pain relievers and cold remedies  Gum: Stay Alert, Jolt Gum, Black Black o Faster bioavailability o Caffeine intoxication in children Chocolate  Primary source methlyxanthines and theobromine o Theobromine – similar to caffeine – weak 1/10  Harmful to dogs and horses  Cacao pods – Mexico, central America, Carribean  Not rich in caffeine History  Aztec drink – not sweet  Spain – Cortes  Betrothal gifts to Louis XIII and Louis XIV  Symbol of wealth Pure Caffeine  Isolated from coffee and tea 1820s  Bitter white powder ADME  Absorbed from GI tract  Sig. Blood level 30-60 minutes o Peak blood concentration 60 minutes o Peak CNS effects – 2 hours  Half-life – 5 hours  Metabolized in liver  Excreted 90% metabolized  CYP1A2 – metabolizes caffeine o Inhibited by SSRI’s  adverse reactions  Smokers metabolize 2x faster  induction of liver enzymes from smoking o Greater level of coffee consumption in smokers  Pregnancy and contraceptives – slow metabolism o Half life increases to 10 hours by end of pregnancy Neurochemical  Competitive antagonists at adenosine receptors  Adenosine – reduce release of neurotransmitters and suppresses neural activity o Sleepiness, dilation of blood vessels, reduce stress response  Caffeine occupies adenosine receptors but produce no neurochemical effects by doing so o Headache relief – constriction of blood vessels Psychological Effects  Mood elevation, increased mental alertness  Decreased appetite and quality of sleep  Heartburn  Increases urinary excretion of calcium and inhibits absorption of calcium from diet o **  LD 200 mg/kg o 150 lb person – Self Administration and CPP  Failed to find evidence of self administration  CPP with low doses, CPA with high doses  Reinforcing effects substantially less prominent Intoxication  Age, sex, cigarette smoking status, previous caffeine use  600 mg over a few hours DSM  Recent consumption in excess of 250 mg  5 or more during or shortly after use; restlessness, nervousness, excitement, insomnia, flushed face, diuresis, twitching.. etc o Causing clinically significant distress Tolerance and Physical Dependence  Tolerance to many effects  Tolerance clearly to cardiovascular effects, locomotor stimulation effect, emotional/mood effects  Occurrence of tolerance  physical dependence  Withdrawal 12-24 hr, peak 24-48, gone in a week Caffeine and Pregnancy  Reduce fertility in women >300 mg/d  Miscarriage and stillbirth  Withdrawal symptoms in babies  Harmful effects in rats  Low birth weight  > 400 mg/d Sudden Infant Death Syndrome o Increase adenosine receptors, increased depressed repression Arecoline  Betel/ areca nut  1 palm – 250 nuts  1 billion people SouthEast Asia and India  Betel quid - Peiced of nut wrapped in leaf with pinch of lime and pressed inside of cheek and sucked o Lime – oral cavity more alkaline – better absoption  India: Gutka – heavily sweetened betel nut with smokless tobacco  Novice – unpleasant effects  Cholinergic agonist – higher doses = trance like effects  Legal  Toronto – pan masala/ paan Tobacco History General enthusiasm and attribution of wide ranging medical powers o Bowel Obstruction – smoke blown up bum  1600 – Pipe – Gathered in tobacco houses  1700 – Snuff: Finely ground tobacco; pinches taken from snuff box and snorted  1800 – Chewing – Loose tobacco leaves or Plugs: shredded tobacco mixed with molasses and pressed flat into rectangular cube  Mid 1800 – Cigars  1850’s – Cigarettes – Cigarette machine (James Bonsack, 1881).’  1895 – North Dakota bans sale of cigarettes Protests King James I - Counterblaste to tobacco refuting medical benefits Pope Urban VIII – Worldwide smoking ban for Catholics  sneezing from tobacco too close to sexual ecstasy Sultan Murad IV – Prohibited smoking in Ottoman empire; Self-enforced  Beheaded, drawn and quartered Ibrahim the Mad – Murad successor – lifted ban 1647 – tobacco joined “cushions on the sofa of pleasure” with coffee, wine, and opium Czar Michael – banned smoking – whippings, floggings, slitting nostrils  Execution for second timers Lucy Gaston – Anti Cigarette League 1899 - Cigarettes = coffin nails Adolf Hitler – Tobacco = wrath of the Red Man against the White Man Getting even for destruction alcohol brought to natives Protests failed – Statistics ____ % of adult Canadian population smoked in 1950’s ____% 1965 ____% 1975 ____% 1985 ____% 1995 ____% 2005 ____% 2008 Age ___________ highest levels of smoking 1995 _____________________ cigarettes produced in Canada Consequences  Harmful effects cost more in health care, lost productivity and premature death than either alcohol or illegal drugs  37000/40000 deaths related to tobacco use  14 minutes for every cigarette smoked  Smokers die up to _______ years earlier  Environmental tobacco smoke o Third leading preventable cause of death o Mainstream smoke: smoke exhaled by smoker o Sideline smoke: smoke emanating from lit tobacco  More harmful – not filtered, less well burned  Exposure to second hand smoke o Heart disease or cancer increased 30% o Increased risk for cognitive impairment o Babies: Sudden infant death syndrome o Children: bronchitis, pneumonia, asthma Biological, Social, and Psychological Factors  Adolescents, low socioeconomic status, less education, high alcohol and/or coffee consumption  Females smoking – weight control  Smoking in peer group and parental smoking  Psychological factors – low conscientiousness, low agreeableness, high extroversion, increased neuroticism, more anxiety, less self control, night people o Adverse childhood experiences  Comorbidity – depression and alcohol abuse  Nicotine may have antidepressant effects – depressed smoke as self- medication  Smoking cessation – increased risk of relapse in depressed  Animal model – transdermal patches produced big improvement in depressed nonsmokers Nicotine: The Active Ingredient  Purified in 1828 by two French chemists, Posselt and Peimann; named after French Ambassador to Potugal Jean Nicot  Oily, colorless /slightly brown, unpleasant smell ADME  Inhalation – absorption 90% complete o Reaches brain within 7 seconds  Skin – nicotine in insecticides  nicotine poisoning unprotected workers  Cotinine – main metabolite  30-40% inhaled nicotine excreted unchanged  Amount excreted highly dependent on urinary ph  Nicotine = base; alkalinizing urine  greater renal absorption o Diet in high alkaline foods - o o Acidification of urine – o o Stressful Conditions – Neurochemical Effects  Activates nicotinic cholinergic receptors  stimulation of dopamine release  Level of dop activity in system positively correlated to euphoria and reward o Nicotine is rewarding  increases dopamine levels  Modulatory action of GABA towards dopamine interference o GABA inhibits release of dopamine if over activity o Nicotine prevents negative feedback action of GABA  even more dopaminergic activation Nicotine Content  Typical 0.5-2.0 mg  Players 1.5  DuMauriers 1.1  Export A 1.7  Marlboro 1.0  Virginia Slims 1.1  20% nicotine content inhaled and reaches bloodstream  20/day – 4 mg/day  LD50 – 60 mg – typical cigar contains 2 Smoking Topography  Cigarettes smoked by machine – allows for consistency  Constituent levels on pack mimic smoking topography of smoking machine o Depth and volume of inhalation o Amount of time smoke is held in lungs o Holes in filter covered/uncovered  Light cigarettes – filters have small holes to dilute smoke o Less satisfying  inadvertently or on purpose cover holes  more constituents inhaled Constituents – over 4000 compounds  Tar – any substance in smoke other than nicotine and carbon monoxide o Filter – brown: tar, darker: more tar inhaled than smoke o Paralyze cilia in lungs allowing constituents to remain in lungs  Carbon Monoxide – binds to hemoglobin  carbonhemoglobin – reduces oxygen carrying capacity of blood o Smokers have 10x Physiological Effects  Brain stem vomiting center  Increased heart rate and blood pressure  Constricts blood vessels  cold, clamy hands and feet Psychological Effects  Cholinergic nervous system  Nicotine o Enhances performance in task requiring concentration over long time period o Reduces interference from irrelevant stimuli and increase attention to relevant stimuli o Stroop Task – name colour which word is printed  Nicotine faster than no nicotine  Alzheimers – cholinergic hypofunctioning o Nicotine helps alleviate cognitive deficits o Activation of system beneficial  Animal Models – ameliorate learning and memory deficits in aged animals Self Administration and CPP  Progressive ratio procedure in dogs – BP=500  Support CPP  Drugs blocking acquisition an/or expression of both o Mecamylamine – blocks nicotine receptors o Rimonabant – blocks canaboid receptors Tolerance and Physical Dependence  Inconsistent evidence concerning tolerance o Some mood effects, little performance effect o Animals – little tolerance locomotor, reinforcing and dopamine release o Tolerance plays little role in addiction  Clear evidence for withdrawal and physical dependence o Animals – teeth chattering, abdominal writing, gasps and chews, o Humans DSM – decrease in arousal, sleep disturbances, irritability, attentional deficits, restlessness, headaches, increased appetite o Symptoms last 10 -30 days Treatment  Nine failed attempts before successfully quitting  Relapse rate 95%  Increased likelihood of abstinence – older, male, married, smoking fewer cigarettes, having a lower addiction level, having smoked for fewer years, more previous quitting attempts, high efficacy  Women smoke less for nicotine – fewer cigarettes/day, lower nicotine, inhale less deeply – should make less dependent o Sensory effects, conditional cues, social pleasures Pharmacotherapies Name Active ingredient How it Works Implications Nicotine Tansdermal patch/ -Maintaining -Smokers still want replacement chewing gum nicotine blood cigarette levels other than -Not only factors in smoking reduces smoking withdrawal - Not super symptoms successful - nicotine level - Reinforcing gradually reduced effects not soley due to nicotine Sustained Release Burpropion - If used with NR, Bupropion Nicotinic receptor better than either (success double antagonist and alone than that with block dopamine placebo) reuptake Champix Varencline – - Occupies nicotinic - Reduces both partial receptor receptor  cannot withdrawal and agonist at nicotinic be occupied by cravings receptors nicotine  - May produce reduced level of psychiatric effects nicotinic stimulation  reduced dopamine release Smoking in Pregnant Women  Spontaneous abortion and still birth, premature birth, low birth weight, and strabismus  Animals – increased activity, decreased learning and memory in a variety of tasks, changes in brain and neurochemical functioning  Humans – developmental delays in math, reading and general intellectual markers, externalizing behaviour, reduced intellectual abilities, ADHD  Deficits more pronounced, more cigarettes smoked (10+/day) – clear  Effects due to o Direct action of nicotine on fetus o Indirect result vasoconstriction – reduced uterin blood flow o Increased cellular hypoxia  Father smoking – smoking depletes vitamin C sperm abnormal Cannabis  Sativa, indica, or ruderalis  Cannabinoids – several hundred chemical agents, 60-80 unique to plant  Hot, dry climate – fiber content weak, so much resin – covered in dew  Cold, humid climate – fiber content increases, resin production falls History  10,000 YA – fibers, oldest cultivated plant not for food  Middle East – ideal climate for high THC climate  France: JJ Moreau de tours – fencing with a bowl of fruit  Canada 1606 by British – hemp  Prohibition o “tea-rooms” – more common than speakeasies  US Law – Harry Anslinger – relentless campaign against drugs o Laws b/c racial minorities used it  negative attitudes toward drug o 1936 – laws prohibiting marijuana  Canada: Marijuana = narcotic THC  Isolated and synthesized – 1964  Typical joint weight o 1970 – 1.5 grams: 15-30 mg THC o 2013 – 60 mg THC  Total harvested – 2.5 billion  Ounce = $250-200 Hashish  Dried resin of flowers and leaves of plant  THC content – 10%  Preparation o Boiled in solvent (alcohol) – extracts cannabinols o THC content - 40%  Europe 1800s – British colonization of India and Napolean’s expeditions  Le Club des Hachicins - Theophile Gautier o Hachicins – leading literary and art figures of the time o Dawamesc – sweetmeat – flower tops boiled in butter, strained and seasoned Method and Absorption  Bong/ Hookah –pipe-like devices in which smoke passed though water prior to inhalation  Blunt – Marijuana tobacco mixture packed into a hallowed out cigar  Less than 50% of THC in joint available for absorption, considerably less actually absorbed o Actual amount 5-10 mg  Smoking efficient getting drug to brain  Seconds – onset of effects  10 minutes – peak bloo
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