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Psychology 2020A/B Test 1 Review.docx

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Psychology 2020A/B
Riley Hinson

Introduction Drug: A chemical compound that may produce psychological, behavioural, and physiological effects Psychoactive effects: alterations in cognitive, behavioural, and motor processes Drug Names Chemical: type of molecule and the location of chemical groups on the molecule  1,3,7 trimethylxantine = caffeine Generic (nonproprietary): Commonly used name that can be used by any company marketing the drug  Fluoxetine, triazolam, diazepam Trade (proprietary): given by company, only to be used by that company  Prozac, Halcion, Valium Street: derivatives of trade, or refer to some physical aspect of purported effect  The love drug Pharmacokinetics: Administration, absorption, distribution, metabolism and elimination of the drug Pharmcodynamics: processes involved in the interaction of the drug with receptors at the site of action Routes of Administration Oral Diagram Mucous membranes (nose, eyes, vagina, rectum, across skin) Inhalation – nicotine, THC, and solvents  Bagging – spraying of inhalant in a bag, placing bag over mouth and inhaling  Drug reaches brain in 5-8 seconds Injection  Blood volume : Peritoneal cavity> muscles> under the skin  Intravenous: Directly into blood stream (Mainlinging)  Skin popping: subcutaneous injections of illicit drugs Distribution Injection: enter diffusing through pores in capillaries Oral: must be lipid soluble for absorption from digestive system Factors Affecting Entry and Arrival Ionization  Weak acids ionize in alkaline and become less ionized in acidic  Weak bases ionize in acidic and become less ionized in alkaline  Ionized molecules not readily absorbed  % unionized molecules determines rate of absorption  Rate of gastric emptying has influence on onset of drug action bases more readily absorbed as they pass through digestive system (less and less acidic)  Ionized penetrate cell membranes poorer than unionized  Ionized  less fat soluble Lipid Solubility  Lipid soluble penetrate more readily than non- lipid soluble  Usually unionized  Blood brain barrier – reduces diffusion of water soluble, does not impede lipid soluble Receptor Binding  Drug effect = drug binding with receptors at relevant target tissue  Bond forms between charged receptor molecule and opp charged groups on drug  Agonist: mimics effect of a neurotransmitter (Binds to receptor, blocks reuptake or inhibits metabolic breakdown  Antagonists: reduce effects of receptor agonist by binding to active receptors (no pharmacological action)  Mixed agonists-antagonists: bind to receptors (some pharmacological effect at reduced level) Dose-Response Curve  Comparison of potency of drugs  More potent – curve to left of less potent  ED50 – dose effective in producing response in 50%  LD50 – dose killing 50%  LD50/ED50 – therapeutic index  LD1/ED99 – margin of safety  Tolerance represented by shift to the right  Sensitization represented by shift to the left Termination of Drug Action  Most important route of elimination = via urine after drug has been metabolized in liver  Cytochrome P450 – endoplasmic reticulum of liver cells o Many drugs (alcohol) induce activity  rapid metabolism of original drug AND other drugs o Depressed activity  increased toxicity of other drugs o Aged and very young – hepatic metabolizing system is less efficient  Metabolites – less lipid soluble, larger, carry greater charge, inactive/less active than original compound o Less readily reabsorbed from kidney to blood  Renal absorption  pH dependent  Weak acids excreted more readily when urine is alkaline  Weak bases excreted more readily when urine is acidic  Elimination half-life – time needed for half of dose to be eliminated o 6 half-lives for most of the drug (98.4%) to be eliminated and a person be considered drug free  Best therapeutic effect ‘steady state concentration’ o Achieved in time = to 6 of the drugs half-life The Neuron and Neurotransmitters Presynaptic receptors  Ion channel – allow influx of specific ions into postsynaptic element (may lead to depolarization or hyperpolarization of post synaptic element)  G protein-coupled – second messenger initiating intracellular changes Drug effects can be produces by altering the following neurochemical system 1. Neurotransmitter synthesis –increase or decrease the synthesis 2. Neurotransmitter transport – interfere with transport of neurotransmitter molecules to the axon terminals 3. Neurotransmitter storage –interfere with the storage of neurotransmitters in the vesicles of the axon terminal 4. Neurotransmitter release may cause the axon terminals to prematurely release neurotransmitter molecules into the synapse 5. Neurotransmitter degradation –influence the breakdown by enzymes 6. Neurotransmitter reuptake - block the reuptake in axon terminals 7. Receptor activation –activate a receptor site by mimicking a neurotransmitter 8. Receptor blocking – cause a receptor to become inactive by blocking it Synthesis and Breakdown of Neurotransmitter Substances Diagram Neurotransmitters Acetylcholine (Ach) and the Cholinergic System  Broken down by Acetylcholinesterase  Learning and memory (Alzheimers) Dopamine and Dopaminergic system, and Norepinepherine and Noradrenergic system  Broken down by Monamine oxidase (MAO) and alderhyde dehydrogenase  Mood, sex, appetite, sleep, hallucinations, aggression Amino Acid Neurotransmitters: Glutamate and the glutaminergic system and GABA and the GABA-ergic system  Glutamate – major excitatory neurotransmitter involved in neuro plasticity  GABA –major inhibitory neurotransmitter involved in anxiety Peptide and Others  Opioid peptides – endorphins and enkephalins interacting with Mu, Delta, Kappa, Sigma receptors  Anandamide interacting with THC like receptors Behavioural Pharmacology Paradigms Classical Conditioning and Tolerance Tolerance: effects of a given dose may progressively weaken if the drug is given repeatedly  Present problems in achieving effective medication  Increased dose may expose patient to undesirable side effects and may increase likelihood of physical dependence  Mechanisms underlying tolerance also underlie physical dependence o Withdrawal symptoms are directly opposite to actual drug effects  Classical conditioning plays role in development of tolerance  physical dependence and withdrawal  Classical Conditioning (Pavlov): A learning process in which a neutral stimulus comes to be associated with a naturally motivating stimulus so that each evokes the same response   Unconditioned stimulus: Stimulus that elicits response before training  Unconditioned response: response following unconditioned  Stimulus  Conditioned stimulus: Stimulus which ucs has been associated with; elicits response after training  Conditioned response: response to conditioned stimulus after training Situational Specificity of Drug Tolerance  Tolerance is always greater when the drug is given in the context of the usual CS pre-drug cues, thus tolerance does display situational specificity Placebo CR Test  Giving a drug in the context of consistent set of CS predrug cues results in the development of a drug compensatory CR, and that the drug compensatory CR, elicited by the predrug cues, reduces the effect actually produced by the drug  The usual predrug cues elicit the drug opposite CR predicted by the Pavlovian conditioning model of tolerance Losing Tolerance and Treatment Implications  Extinction: in order to get rid of a CR the CS must be presented but not followed with the expected UCS o Extinction like procedures reduce the likelihood of subclinical withdrawal symptoms and relapse Paradigms to Study Drug Reinforcement Drug self-administration is maintained by one of two processes  Positive reinforcement – performance of some behaviour results in experiencing of some desirable or rewarding outcome  Negative reinforcement – performance of some behaviour results in the termination or avoidance of some undesirable or aversive outcome Operant Self-Administration Paradigm  Skinner box  Animals self-administer most of the same drugs that humans do (except hallucinogens)  Factors affecting reinforcing properties o Dose o Onset of effects o Amount of work that must be done to get an injection  An increase in dopaminergic activity in VTA and NA is very importantly involved in positively reinforcing of many drugs  Progressive ratio procedure – provide information on relative reinforcing properties of drugs o Largest number of responses an animal will make to obtain the drug is called the breaking point (Highest BP – stimulants) Conditioned Place Preference Paradigm (Classical conditioning)  Straight alley box  Positive reinforcing properties  produces a conditioned place preference shown by animal spending more time in the drug associated end box Alcohol – Ethanol (ethyl alcohol)  Result of the conversion of sugars into cellular energy  Fermentation: Diagram Distillation  When ABV reaches 14%, alcohol kills yeast and stops development of more alcohol  Alcohol boils at a lower temp :. Steam produced while boiling has higher alcohol than water content History of Alcohol Use Mead (fermented honey)  first intentionally produced alcoholic drink Rome: Excessive drinking revered – soldiers promoted on basis of the ability to consume large amount of alcohol 1500’s: Europe  Dramatic increase in consumption due to increased prosperity, declining influence of Catholic church, improved transportation and stronger beverages  Lead to enactment of laws against drunkenness Mid -170
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