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Psychology 2020A/B

Why Do People Abuse DrugsReasons For Using SubstancesInnate drive to alter consciousnessPassive activityBoredomImpulsivity and disinhibition4 primary drivesHunger thirst sex and desire to alter consciousness drunkenness referenced in Bible and other ancient writings peyote of southwestern aboriginal tribes other plant substances in Central and South AmericaPassiveQuick change without action or work selfmedicates feelings search for the magic pill or cure for the pain of the human condition instantaneous immediate ads for pain relief Active requires effort and motivationBoredomPassive entertainment social lubricant false feelings of deeper connection having difficulty with meaning and purpose in life existential boredomImpulsivitydisinhibitionSensationseeking risktakers thrill seekers enjoy loss of control feeling the subculture lifestyle using itselfusing behavioursAltering ones consciousness is one of the four basic needs of an individual o Eg Kids spinning runningUsing substances is a passive activity something to entertain your mindImpulsivitydisinhibitionSocial lubricationModels And Theories Of AddictionDefinition A relationship with a substance or behaviour which is characterized by compulsion lack of control and negative progression and which continues despite adverse consequencesMultiple theoriesMost addictions have multiple causal factorsCompulsionBeing driven to do something I have to do this I am compelled to do thisNegative progressionOver time it always gets worse never betterAddiction continues despite the consequencesDisease Model Of Alcoholism1957Alcoholism declared a disease by AMA o Known cause etiology o Worsens over time progressive o Known outcomes adverse consequencesGenetic studies support Disease ModelFoundation of Alcoholics Anonymous AAAlso influenced by interpersonal relationshipFamily culture communityTHIQ12 step approach assumes predisposition to alcoholism once an alcoholic always an alcoholic abstinence based crossing a lineDispomania th Late 19 centurythe word alcoholism first appearedBy 1939 AA group of 110 members wrote a bookDisease modelKnown cause worsens over time known outcomes Genetic Model Of Alcoholism1990Studies of neurotransmitters and receptors with correspondents to different drugs led to theories of neurobiologyGroup of illness Devor 1994 genes and environmental influences ebb and flow over the course of atrisk lifetimeSupported by adoption twin studiesSeratonin dopamine adrenaline GABACocaine opiates stimulants alcoholLast couple of decadesLooking at biological factorsMany neurotransmitters is similar to specific drugs o Serotonin has similar effects to opiates o Certain people are more predisposed to a certain drug addiction because of their genetic compositionAdoptionTwin StudiesSons of alcoholics are four times more likely to become alcoholics even when raised by nonalcoholic foster parents MZ twins 71 concordance rate vs DZ twins 32 Kaij 1960MZ twins 26 DZ twins 12 HrubecOmenn 1981No significant difference Gurlingassociates 1984No such studies with drug abuse due to many difficulties with research design in dealing with illicit drugsAssumption that genetic research findings would be similar to alcoholismGreater dysfunction in daughters with alcoholic parents and more likely to choose alcoholic partnersMonozygotic MZIdenticalDZFraternalAddictive PersonalityNot one particular personality profile for addictsMany personality traits can create psychological vulnerability to addictionHarm avoidant Reward dependent Novelty seeking Cloninger 1987Correlation with personality disordersNarcissism Borderline Personality DisorderSomebody who has high anxiety might be more prone to addiction that someone who doesnt3 most common traits of addictive personalityHarm avoidant Reward dependant Novelty seekingAddiction is sometimes referred to as the disease of more2 most common personality disorders associated with addictionNarcissism Borderline Personality DisorderNarcissism o Selfcentered o Lacking in empathy o Not trying to be selfish or deliberately going out of their way to only think of themselves but it seems as though they have tunnel vision o Not able to see life through someone elses eyesBorderline Personality Disorder o Sense of victimization o Leading a somewhat chaotic life o Short and tense relationships with people
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