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Psychology 2020 Test 2 Notes.docx

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Western University
Psychology 2020A/B
Riley Hinson

Psychology 20201 Test 2 CaffeineHistory137trimethylxanthine caffeines chemical name is one of several methylxanthineso Theophylline theobromine dimethylxanthineCaffeine is most common drug for psychoactive effects Daily 80 people consumer caffeineCanadian daily consumption average70 mgPlants that contain methylxantines coffee tea yerba mate guarana kola nut and cacao o Yerba mate steeping the leaves like teao Guarana brewing the roasted berries like coffeeo Caffeine of guarana is twice that of coffeeTea is earliest caffeine beverage China in 2737 BC Tea popular in England and Russiao Russia tea in large urns called samovars British forced Chinese to accept opium in payment for teao Opium wars of mid 1800s First tea shipment to Canada by Hudsons Bay Company 1716 Tea contains theophylline small amountso Theophylline is equally potent to caffeine as a stimulant Discovery of Coffee Ethiopian or Yemenite goat herder noticed goats in state of behavioral excitationtraced to berries of a plant they have eaten Early periods berries were chewed and fermented juice was drunko Later roasting beans and grinding spread in Africa and Middle East ban coffee because considered to be an intoxicant like alcohol 1633 Sultan Murad IV of Ottoman Empire closed down all coffeehouses o Soon reopened due to protests o Bans were always short lived Europe coffee known as The wine of Islam Main concern for coffeehouses were the brewing of political dissent Nickname for coffeehouse penny universities Cola Drinks Canadians 85L year 1 can per day o Americans 3 cans per dayCaffeine in soft drinks come mostly from caffeine removed in decaffeinated coffee Typical can of cola contains 40 mg of caffeinePsychology 20202 Test 2 Energy DrinksTaurine and caffeine drink stimulates cognitive performance and well being Energy drinks do lead to acute improvements in cognitive performance and mood but due to caffeine Energy drink consumption is associated with higher level of alcohol of alcohol consumption in university students Casual link to alcohol consumption Other Forms of CaffeinePure caffeine sold overthecounter as antisleep pillso No Doz Vivarin o Enough caffeine in a bottle of No Doz Vivarin to be fatal Some pain relieversand cold remedies contain caffeine Chewing gum mints and candies have been marketed to contain caffeineo Caffeine administered in chewing gum reaches the body faster than tabletso Caffeine intoxication in young children though candies ChocolatePrimary source for Methylxantthine thoebromine is chocolate Cacao pods Used as a drink by the AztecsNot sweetenedSpanish courts attempted to keep existence of chocolate a secret Origin of Chocolate as a gifto Given to Spanish princess as betrothal giftso Symbol of wealth cacao and sugar were expensive Effects of theobromine are similar to caffeine but the drug is extremely weak thand 110 as potent as caffeine or theophylline Theobromine in chocolate is harmful or fatal if ingested by dogs and horses SciencePure caffeine is a white powder bitter in taste Caffeine rapidly absorbed from gastrointenstinal tract o Blood levels reached in 3060 minutes o Peak blood concentration level in 1 hour Smokers metabolize caffeine twice as fast as non smokers need more o Due to liver enzymes from smokingPregnancy and contraceptives slow down caffeine metabolism Some effects when adenosine occupies its receptors includeso Sleepiness dilation of blood vessels constriction of bronchial passageways reducing the bodys reaction to stress Produce no actual neurochemical action by occupying receptors
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