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Drugs and Behaviour - Exam Study Note - Sedative-Hypnotic Unit

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Psychology 2020A/B
Riley Hinson

Psychology 2020BDrugs and Behaviour SEDATIVEHYPNOTICS What are 2 medical uses of sedativehypnotics Relieving anxiety Inducing sleep What are 2 recreational uses of sedativeEasy means of ameliorating the effects of stress hypnotics Escaping from feelings of discomfort tension anxiety and dysphoria What percentage of the population has had some 24 kind of anxiety disorderWhat are substances called that are designed to Anxiolytics bluntalleviate the feelings of anxiety What would the ideal anxiolytic do Alleviate anxiety without side effects What are the 3 main actions most anxiolytics do 1 Depress the CNS sedative 2 Induce sleep soporific effect 3 Dull awareness hypnotic effect What was the earliest substance in common use as Ethanol alcohol an anxiolytic What was it known to do since its discovery Reduce stress What was alcohol a major component of in the Patent medicines late 1800s Does alcohol serve as a good anxiolytic NO Why Because it has a lot of side effectsPhysical dependenceLiver diseaseBrain damage EARLY SEDATIVEHYPNOTICSWhat effect did potassium bromide have upon its Calming and soothing effect discovery When was it discovered to have this effect Mid 1800s When was it popular as a sedative drug Up til the early 1900s What were bromides introduced for in 1857 Treatment of epilepsy What was this treatment based onEpilepsy was thought to result from excessive HINT current understanding of the causes of masturbationepilepsy Potassium bromide was found to decrease sexual drive Are bromides still used today NOWhy Because they are very toxic What is an example of a medication with Bromoseltzer potassium bromide in it Hangovers What was it used to treat Why does bromide toxicity occur Because the kidneys find it hard to excrete bromide What is the halflife of bromine 12 days What are some symptoms of bromide Impaired thought and memory intoxication Constipation Headache Dermatitis Drowsiness Irritability Delirium Hallucinations Mania Coma Noctec Somnos Felsulesotherwise known as Chloral Hydratewas synthesized in 1832 When was it widely abused Mid to late 1800s Does abuse continue today YESIts only supposed to be for medical use What 2 female celebrities are suspected of using Marilyn Monroe chloral hydrate Anna Nicole Smith When chloral hydrate was combined with alcohol Knockout drops what did it produce 2 Mickey Finn What was the Mickey Finn sometimes used for To render a female unconscious and amnestic so that the perpetrator could rape her What would some consider it an early form of The date rape drug What is the active metabolite that chloral hydrate Trichloroethanolis converted to in the body Whats form is chloral hydrate used in today 2 Syrup capsule Whats it used to induce Sleep Whats its onset of action time 30 min Is it a long duration of action NO Is this pattern desirable for a sleeping drug YES What are some undesirable side effects Gastric upset VomitingFlatulence Nightmares Unsteady gait What substance has been in use as a Paraldehyde sedativeanticonvulsive for more than 100 years What 2 purposes has paraldehyde also been used Control of alcohol withdrawal for Control of agitated mental patients Does it taste good NO How is a large portion of the drug eliminated Expired through the lung Produces an unpleasant smell Since a lot of patients who have come into contact YES with paraldehyde have done so through treatmentEven though it has a bad taste regimes for alcohol addiction do they prefer it to alcohol Does it cause respiratory depression NO Is it still available today YES Is it still usedSeldom If it is used how so Given rectally to control seizures in young children
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