Drugs and Behaviour Chap 1-4 and Brain review

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Department
Psychology
Course
Psychology 2020A/B
Professor
Christine Tenk
Semester
Fall

Description
Chapter 1 Drug: chemical substance when taken into the body, alters structure or functioning, excluding those nutrients related to normal functioning Psychoactive drug: chemical substance that influences functioning of the brain and hence our behaviour and experience Drug use in society : Mixed messaged in society o Warning labels on cigarettes, buy public admission of legal use, o Anti drug-use campaign yet pro use on the internet and movies Categories of drugs depends on intent and motivation of user Licit: legal (recreational {for fun} or instrumental {to achieve a goal accepted by society as legit}) Illicit: illegal Drug misuse: a form of drug taking behaviour in which a prescription or non drug is used inappropriately Drug abuse: a form of drug taking behaviour that results in some form of physical, mental or social impairment History of drug use Early times: natural world for medical and religious use (find source of food, medication, religious ceremonies) th 19 century: medicines prescription & patent 20 century o 1900-45: regulatory laws o 1945-1960: medicinal breakthrough and smoking and drinking peak of recreational popularity o 1960- 2000: various drugs fall in and out of favour, weed, hallucinogens, cocaine th o From 1975-92: 12 graders from 40% to 60%(in the 80s) experimented with drugs and decreases slowly till the 90s then started increasing to about 40% again th th th 10 and 8 graders started experimenting in 1992. (10 ; went from 20- 40 then slowly down) (8 : went from 10%-20 and then slowly down) Drug Grade8 High school university Adult Alcohol 37% 83% 80% 82% cannabis 6% 46% 32% 12% Stimulants 4% 6% 11% 2% Opioid pain 14% 20% 5% 1% relievers Reasons for high schoolers to take drugs is to have a good time with friends, experiment, feel good, and to relax Patterns for adults in 2007: alcohol : 81.5% cannabis: 12.5% stimulants: 1.7% opiod: 1% Factors determining the risk of drug taking Risk factors factors in an individuals life that increase likelihood drug involvement Protective factors factors that decrease likelihood of drug involvement and reduce the impact of any risk factor o These have been termed Developmental assets o Increase resistance to drug taking behaviour AS WELL AS other high-risk behaviours such as sexual activity and violence Chapter 2 Dose Response curve: plots the effect the drug against the dose of the drug low to high...the affect of the drug more and more. It has the S shape. With any drug there is a dose where the drug stops taking effect. Ex: take 1 Advil have decent amount of pain relief, take 2 and feel complete relief. Take more then 2 and you wont feel anything different. --- take with alcohol you can keep taking feeling relaxed, then sleepy, then coma, then death. Cant go beyond death. **there are multiple dose response for each drug Effective Dose : dose of a drug necessary to produce the drug effect in a certain percentage of the population. How much of the drug is going to be effective for so many people Lethal Dose: dose of a drug that produces death in a certain percentage of this population. How dangerous is a drug? *the lower the LD the more dangerous it is* 2 measures if drug safety Need to combine effective and lethal dose to arrive at an overall measure of drug toxicity. o Therapeutic index: the ratio of LD50 to ED50. If LD50 is 100 and ED50 is 20, then the TI is 5. TI=LD50/ED50. the # means that you take the #X that dose for you to consume would be lethal. o Margin of safety: the ratio of LD1 to ED99. If the LD1 is 100 and ED99 is 20, then the margin of safety is 5. MS= LD1/ED99 how many times you have to consume drug for it to be remotely lethal. This is more conservative then TI. The higher the # the safer the drug. We want to max the ratios, we ensure the lethal dose of the drug is much higher then the effective dose it means that the lethal dose should be much further to the right then the effective dose...looking for further spread.Drug safety : Measures of drug safety and regulated drugs Illicit drugs=illegal drugs. - They dont come from the right kind of person and are often diluted (max financial profit) they mixed with non harmful things but then can be mixed with less inert substances( insecticide, tranquilizers, etc) and it changes that effect of the drug, more punch even if we know what the lethal dose of a pure drug is, we cant tell what concentration were getting, its toxicity etc. With illicit drugs. 2 types of drug toxicity: 1. ACUTE: physical or psychological harm of a drug. Harm caused immediately or soon after ingestion. Accidental overdose of various prescription drugs such as oxytoxicn, tenazepam, etc. 2. CHRONIC: harm of a drug caused over time, it builds on itself. Ex: cirrhosis of the liver due to alcohol or lung disease due to smoking Drug tolerance: decreased sensitivity to drug following repeated exposure. 2 ways: Same dose of the drug has less of an effect More of the drug needed to be consumed to have the same effect Conditioned tolerance: drug tolerance that is cued when the drug is administered in the presence of the same environmental cues as in the past. It is initiated when the drug is taken in the same environment it has always been taken in.. they begin to trigger the effect of tolerance.. body knows the drug is coming and starts to fight it before hand ( your body fight the drug by doing the opposite effect, reasons why you have withd
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