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psych 2030 lecture 1.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course
Psychology 2030A/B
Professor
David Vollick
Semester
Winter

Description
What is a mental illness? - Interferes with optimal functioning Normal behavior - What is psychologically normal? o Majority, function autonomously, perceive reality, regulated moods, relate non-violently, not severely stressed - Misconceptions about abnormal behavior o Bizarre, different in kind, former patients are unstable & dangerous, ashamed, one’s susceptibility, weak in character, mental illness is a hopeless situation - Toward a definition of abnormal behavior o Psychological dysfunction  Breakdown in cognitive, emotional or behavioral functioning o Distress or impairment  Difficulty performing appropriate and expected roles  Impairment is set in the context of a person’s background o Atypical or unexpected cultural response - Abnormal behavior defined o Psychological disorder and psychological abnormality are used interchangeably o Mental illness is a less preferred term o Psychopathology is the scientific study of psychological disorders - The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-IV) o Widely accepted system for classifying psychological problems and disorders o DSM contains diagnostic criteria for behaviors that  Fit a pattern  Cause dysfunction or subjective distress  Are present for a specified duration  And for behaviors that are not otherwise explainable - Approaches to the scientific study of psychological disorders o Mental health professionals  The Ph.D.s: clinical and counseling psychologists  The Psy.D.s: clinical and counseling “Doctors of Psychology” (No Psy.D. programs current exist in Canada)  In Canada, regulations of the profession is under the jurisdiction of the provinces and territories  M.D.’s: Psychiatrists  M.S.W.’s: Psychiatric and non-psychiatric social workers  MN/MSN’s: Psychiatric nurses - The scientists-practitioner o Producers of research o Consumers of research o Evaluators of their work using empirical methods - Categories (figure 1.3) - Studying psychological disorders o Clinical description o Causation (etiology) o Treatment and outcome - Clinical description o Begins with the presenting problem o Description aims to  Distinguish clinically significant dysfunction from common human experience o Describe prevalence and incidence of disorders o Describe onset of disorders  Acute vs. insidious onset o Describe course of disorders  Episodic, time-limited, or chronic course o Prognosis—good vs. guarded - Causation, Treatment, and Outcomes o What factors contribute to the development of psychopathology?  Study of etiology o How can we best improve the lives of people suffering from psychopathology?  Study of treatment development  Includes pharmacologic, psychosocial, and/or combined treatment o Have we alleviated psychological suffering?  Study of treatment outcome - The past: historical conceptions of abnormal behavior o Major psychological disorders have existed  In all cultures  Across all time periods o The causes and treatment of abnormal behavior varied widely  Across cultures  Across time periods o Three dominant traditions include:  Supernatural, biological (from Greece—separate mind/body), and Psychological - The past: Abnormal behavior and the supernatural tradition o Deviant behavior: believed to be caused by:  Demonic possession, witchcraft, sorcery  Mass hysteria (st. vitus’ dance or tartanism)  Movement of the moon and stars  Paracelsus and lunacy  Both “outer force” views were popular during the middle ages  Few believed that abnormality was an illness on par with physical disease  Treatment included exorcism, torture, beatings, and crude surgeries - The past: abnormal behavior and the biological tradition o Hippocrates’: abnormal behavior as a physical disease  Hysteria “The wandering uterus” o Galen extends Hippocrates work  Humoral theory of mental illness  Treatments remained crude  Heat, moisture, cold, bloodletting, induced vomiting  Galenic-Hippocratic tradition  Foreshadowed modern views linking abnormality with brain chemical imbalances - The Nineteenth Century o General Paresis (Syphilis)  Associated with several unusual psychological and behavioral symptoms  Pasteur discovered the cause –a bacterial microorganism  Led to penicillin as a successful treatment  Bolstered the view that mental illness = physical illness and should be treated as such  John Grey—due to brain pathology = incurable  Mental illness = physical illness - The development of biological treatment o Kraeplin—disorders due to brain disorder o The 1930’s: biological treatments were standard practice  Insulin shock therapy, ECT  People with epilepsy rarely have schizophrenia (due to compulsion? Electrical shocks?)  Brain surgery (lobotomy) o By the 1950’s several medications were established  Examples: neuroleptics (i.e. reserpine) and major tranquilizer  Side effects, addictions, effectiveness??? - The Psychological Traditio
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