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Psychology 2030A/B Study Guide - Fall 2018, Comprehensive Midterm Notes - Schizophrenia, Major Depressive Disorder, Anxiety


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYCH 2030A/B
Professor
David Vollick
Study Guide
Midterm

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Psychology 2030A/B
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
Fall 2018

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PSYCH2030
Sept 10
Class 1: Chapter 1 & 2
Chapter 1: Introduction
Normal vs. Abnormal behaviour
Those having abilities that differ from the general public
Behaving different = deviance
Behaviours straying from societal norms or standards
Culture = shared patterns differ from another culture
Behaving dangerously that:
o May result from intense emotional state or signal of a psychological disorder, but
aloe is not necessary or sufficient i.e., skydiving is dangerous but is not a sign of
abnormal brhaviour
Behaving dysfunctional
o Behaviour that interferes with normal daily routines and/or causes significant
distress
Research HOT Topic: Approaches to Abnormal Behaviour
Categorical vs. Dimensional
Categorical
o Do you meet the diagnostic criteria or not?
o Whe is eough eough re: sptos?
Dimensional
o Abnormal behaviour on a continuum & constantly changing in severity over time
o Incorporates quantitative criteria vs an all or nothing way of thinking
Factors to Consider when Addressing Abnormal Behaviour
Sex, race, or ethnicity (i.e., women more susceptible to anxiety)
Age (chronological age vs. development maturity) young people get depressed for
different reasons than older adults
Downward drift is impairment due to psychological disorder
Development trajectory = symptoms vary by age
o Adolescent vs child has a different way of interpreting things/thinking
SES children from all SES groups developed disorders at the same rate
Biological changes (e.g., hormonal changes with puberty)
Prevalence of Psychological Disorders in Children by Sex and age
The rate of psychological disorders decreases as boys enter teen years, but increases as
girls enter adolescence
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History and Abnormal Behaviour
Ancient theories
o Aiet ultures, e.g., Egpt, spirits otrolled perso’s ehaiour
Treatment
Trephination create a hole in the skull to release the evil spirits
Classic Greek and Roman Views
o Hippocrates (460-377 BC), father of medicine
First to identify symptoms (e.g., hallucinations, delusions, melancholia,
hysteria) associated with schizophrenia, somatoform disorders, and
mood disorders
Physical factors: 4 humours (blood, black bile, yellow bile, phlegm)
Gale’s otriutio – saw people with delusions
Middle ages through the renaissance
o Influence of the Roman Catholic Church
o Abnormal behaviour was the work of the devil
o Witchcraft also explained abnormal behaviour
Mass hysteria caused by spirits
o Enlightenment by Johann Weyer and Paracelsus
19th Century moral treatment:
o Removed patients from warehouse asylums into specialized facilities devoted to
the care and treatment of the mentally ill
o Advocated a more humane treatment
o Use of respect, kindness, religion, and vocation
o Key founders: Philippe Pinel, William Tuke, Benjamin Rush, Dorothea Dix & Emil
Kraepelin (etiology cause of mental illness & prognosis) DSM rely on his
concept
Mental Health Facilities in Canada
Hotel Dieu in Quebec
Many 1800s
o Converted jails and military barracks
Homewood retreat in Guelph catered to the wealthy
o Wanted routine, activities, healthy diet, exercise
Privately funded so residents had control over interventions
Biological Models (behavioural genetics)
Biological scarring years of living with a disorder causes changes in the brain
Hereditary factors
Brain malfunctioning or structural abnormalities i.e., frontal lobe of schizophrenics is
less dense than normal
Viral infection theory a fetus is exposed to toxins or a virus in prenatal stage, or shortly
after birth
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