Chapter 11 Review.docx

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Psychology 2030A/B
Michelle Everest

Chapter 11 Review Gender Stereotypes - Gender stereotypes may vary depending on ethnicity and they typically favour males Gender Similarities and Differences - Gender Similarity Hypothesis o Males and Females are more similar than different on most psychological variables - No gender differences in general intelligence - When it comes to verbal abilities, gender differences are small and they generally favour females - Gender differences are also small in mathematical abilities but they favour males - Males perform much better than females on the Spatial Ability (perceiving and mentally manipulating shapes and figures), however this skill can be improved through practice - Males are typically are somewhat higher in self-esteem, although the findings are coplex - Males tend to be more physically aggressive and have more permissive attitudes towards casual sex and are more sexually active - Males and females are similar in the experience of emotions, but females are more likely to outwardly display emotions - Social Role Theory asserts that minor gender differences are exaggerated by the different social roles that males and females occupy - Social Constructionism asserts that individuals construct their own reality based on societal expectations, conditioning, and self socialization Biological Origins of Gender Differences - Evolutionary psychologists o Explain gender differences on the basis of their purported adaptive value in ancestral environments - Brain organization o Some studies suggest that males exhibit ore cerebral specialization than females - Hormones o Efforts to tie hormone levels to gender differences have also been troubled by interpretive problems. Nonetheless, there probably is some hormonal basis for gender differences in aggression and in some aspects of sexual behaviour Environmental Origins of Gender Difference - Socialization takes place through the process of reinforcement and punishment, observational learning and self-socialization - Parents, peers, schools and the media are the primary sources of gender-role socialization Gender Role Expectations - Males o Achievement o Aggression o Autonomy o Sexuality o Stoicism (men should not share their pain or express ‘soft’ feelings) - Females o Marriage mandate – frowned upon if not married by a certain age o Motherhood mandate – women should desire to have children and be self- sacrificing rather than persons who have their own needs and interests o Work outside the home – the percentage of women in the work force has been steadily rising over the last 30 years but research shows that husband’s careers continue to take priority over their wives’ ambition Gender in the Past and in the Future - Androgyny o Refers to the coexistence of both masculine and feminine personality traits in a single person  Males who score high on masculinity and lo
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