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Psychology 2030A/B
David Vollick

Psychology: Human Adjustment 1 Chapter 1 Is Behaving Deviantly (Differently) Abnormal? Deviance = abnormal behavior broadens from simply being different to behaving differently Goodness of fit = understanding behavior within a specific context Group Expectations Culture = shared behavioral patterns and lifestyles that differentiate one group of people from another Culture-bound syndrome = originally describes abnormal behaviors that were specific to a particular location or group -however, we now know that some of these behavioral patterns extend across ethnic groups and geographic areas Development and Maturity -eccentric behavior may violate societal norms but is not always negative or harmful to others Is Behaving DysfunctionallyAbnormally -frequency alone does not mean a behavior is maladaptive, but frequency can lead to two other conditions: distress and dysfunction -maladaptive behavior results in distress -when one of these conditions is evident, the presence of a psychological disorder must be considered ADefinition ofAbnormal Behavior Abnormal Behavior = behavior that is inconsistent with the individual’s development, cultural, and societal norms, and creates emotional distress or interferes with daily functioning Factors Influencing the Expression of Abnormal Behaviors Socioeconomic status (SES) = defined by family income and educational achievement Downward drift = the impairment that results from a psychological disorder (inability to sleep, addiction to alcohol) leads to job loss or limited educational achievement Developmental trajectory (a trajectory is a path or progression) = the idea that the common symptoms of a disorder vary according to a person’s age Ancient Theories Trephination = using a circular instrument to cut away sections of the skull -one interpretation of trephination is that it was a treatment for abnormal behaviors -opening up the skull, it may have been thought, released the evil spirits that had assumed control of the person -this is only an assumption -trephination might simply have been used to treat head wounds received in battles -even today, we are not sure why ancient peoples practiced it Classical Greek and Roman Periods 2 -during this period, mental illnesses were considered to result from either traumatic experiences or an imbalance in fluids (such as blood) found within the body -these fluids were called humors -father of medicine, Hippocrates (460-377 BC) was the most famous Greek physician -he produced both a diagnostic classification system and a model by which to explain abnormal behavior -identified common psychological symptoms Hallucinations = hearing or seeing things not evident to others Delusions = beliefs with no basis in reality Melancholia = severe sadness Mania = heightened states of arousal that can result in frenzied activity Hysteria (now called conversion disorder) = used to describe patients who appeared to have blindness or paralysis for which there was no organic cause -but even in very recent times, the term hysteria continued to describe an intense, dramatic pattern of behavior once associated with women -in his model, the four humors were yellow bile, black bile, blood and phlegm. -blood was associated with a courageous and hopeful outlook on life, and phlegm was associated with a calm and unemotional attitude -excessive yellow bile caused mania, and excessive black bile caused melancholia, which was treated with a vegetable diet, a tranquil existence, celibacy, exercise, and sometimes bleeding -Greek physician was Galen, the personal physician of the Roman emperor Marcus Aurelius -Galen attributed hysteria to a psychological cause, believing it to be a symptom of unhappiness in women who had lost interest in and enjoyment of sexual activity -Avicenna known as the “prince and chief of physicians” and “the second teacher afterAristotle” -Avicenna considered depression to result from a mix of humors, and he believed that certain physical diseases were caused by emotional distress -he stressed the beneficial effects of music on emotional disturbance -his approach to mental illness foreshadowed what would take an additional 600 years to appear in Europe- human treatment of the mentally ill The MiddleAges Through the Renaissance -Mass hysteria, one of the first recorded cases (originating in Italy in the early thirteenth century) is known as tarantism, caused by the belief that the bite of a wolf spider (also known as a tarantula) would cause death unless a person engaged in joyous, frenetic dancing, jumping, or convulsing -Another form of mad madness was lycanthropy, in which individuals believed that they were possessed by wolves -the belief was so strong that those affected would act like a wold, even to the point of believing that their bodies were covered in fur Emotional contagion = the automatic mimicry and synchronization of expression, vocalizations, postures, and movements of one person by another -Dutch physician Johann Weyer (1515-1588) and Swiss physician Paracelsus (1493-1541) 3 -Weyer was the first physician to specialize in the treatment of mental illness, and Paracelsus refuted the idea that abnormal behaviors were linked to demonic possession -Paracelsus believed that mental disorders could be hereditary and that some physical illnesses had a psychological origin -another concept of asylums was based on good intentions, the asylums quickly filled to capacity (and overcapacity) -the lack of effective treatments turned the facilities into warehouses often call madhouses Bedlam (a contraction of “Bethlehem”) = chaotic and uncontrollable situations The Nineteenth Century and the Beginning of Modern Thought -French physician Philippe Pinel (1745-1826) and the English Quaker William Tuke (1732-1822) -in 1793, Pinel was the director of Bicêtre, an asylum for men -he proposed that mental illness was often curable and that to apply appropriate treatment, the physician must listen to the patient and observe his behavior -both would help the physician to understand the natural history of the disease and the events that led to its development -Pinel advocated calm and order within the asylum -he removed the chains from the patients, both at Bicêtre and at the women’s asylum known as Salpêtrière -instead of using restraints, Pinel advocated daytime activities such as work or occupational therapy to allow for restful sleep at night -William Tuke established the York Retreat, a small country house deliberately designed to allow people with mental illnesses to live, work, and relax in a compassionate and religious environment -instead of bars on the windows, Tuke used iron dividers to separate the glass window panes and even had the dividers painted to look like wood -the Retreat was built on a hill, and although it contained a hidden ditch and a wall to ensure confinement, the barriers could not be seen from the buildings; this gave the illusion of a home rather than an institution -the work of both Pinel and Tuke heralded moral treatment, “summed up in two words, kindness and occupation” -Benjamin Rush (1745-1813) and Dorothea Dix (1802-1887) -Rush was a well-known physician at Pennsylvania Hospital and a signer of the Declaration of Independence -he limited his practice to mental illness, which he believed had its causes in the blood vessels of the brain -although this theory was later disproved, Rush believed that the human mind was the most important area of study, and he became known as the father ofAmerican psychiatry -Dorothea Dix, the Boston schoolteacher who devoted her life to the plight of the mentally ill and the need for treatment reform -though her efforts, 32 institutions that included programs in psychiatric treatment, research and education were established -Dix believed that asylums, correctly designed and operated, would allow for treatment and perhaps even cure -although Dix brought the plight of the mentally ill to public attention, moral treatment alone did not cure most forms of mental illness -in fact, mental hospitals became associated with permanent institutionalization, custodial care, isolation, and very little hope 4 -German physician FranzAnton Mesmer (1734-1815) -Mesmer proposed that the body was a magnet and that using the physician’s body as a second magnet could achieve a cure for mental illness -Mesmer believed that a substance called animal magnetism existed within the body -when it flowed freely, the body was in a healthy state; however, when the flow of this energy force was impeded, disease resulted -the cure involved “magnetic passes” of the physician’s hands over the body -Mesmerism was roundly criticized by a committee of scientists and physicians that included Benjamin Franklin and the noted French chemistAntoine Lavoisier Placebo effect = symptoms are diminished or eliminated not because of any specific treatment but because the patient believes that a treatment is effective -the effect is usually temporary -placebos are not the same as actual treatment Syphilis = a sexually transmitted disease caused by a bacterium General Paresis = manifested as physical paralysis and mental illness and eventually death -German psychiatrist Emil Kraepelin (1856-1926) -Kraepelin attended lectures in the laboratory of Wilhelm Wundt, the founder of modern scientific psychology -he applied Wundt’s scientific methods to measure behavioral deviations, hoping to provide the theoretical foundations that he considered to be lacking in psychiatry -on Wundt’s advice, Kraepelin began to study “the abnormal” -in 1899, after observing hundreds of patients, he introduced two diagnostic categories based not just on symptoms differentiation but also on the etiology (cause) and prognosis (progression and outcome) of the disease Dementia praecox (now called schizophrenia) = a type of mental illness characterized by mental deterioration Manic-depressive insanity = a separate disorder with a more favorable outcome compared to dementia praecox -Kraepelin was best known for his studies of dementia praecox, which he believed resulted from autointoxication, the self-poisoning of brain cells as a result of abnormal body metabolism -Jean-Martin Charcot (1825-1893) -established a school of neurology at La Salpêtrière in Paris -Charcot was interested in hysteria, and he believed that it was cause by degenerative brain changes -AmbroseAugust Liébeault (1823-1904) and Hippolyte Bernheim (1840-1919) in Nancy, France, were conducting experiments to determine whether hysteria was a form of self-hypnosis -debate raged between Charcot and the physicians collectively called the Nancy School -Eventually, more scientific data supported the views of the Nancy School -to his credit as a scientist, once the data were established, Charcot became a strong proponent of this view -Viennese physician Josef Breuer (1842-1925) was studying the effect of hypnotism -Breuer used hypnosis to treat patients with hysteria including a young woman namedAnna O., who had cared for her ailing father until his death 5 -shortly thereafter, she developed blurry vision, trouble speaking, and difficulty moving her right arm and both her legs -Breuer discovered that when under hypnosis,Anna O., would discuss events and experiences that she was unable to recall otherwise -furthermore, after discussing these distressing events, her symptoms disappeared -Breuer called this treatment the talking cure, laying the foundation for a new approach to mental disorders The Twentieth Century -Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) Psychoanalysis = a comprehensive theory that attempts to explain both normal and abnormal behavior -Freud believed that the roots of abnormal behavior were established in the first 5 years of life -because they happened so early, he believed that the person would retain no conscious memory of them- yet the unconscious memories would exert a life-long influence on behaviour -psychoanalytic theory has three important aspects: the structure of the mind, the strategies used to deal with threats to the stability of the mind, and the stages of psychosocial development crucial for the development of normal (or abnormal behavior) -in psychoanalytic theory, the mind consists of three regions: the id, ego, and superego Libido = basic instinctual drives and the source of psychic energy -Libido are found in the id -always seeking pleasure, the id is totally unconscious, so its urges and activities are outside our awareness -the ego develops when the id comes in contact with reality -the ego copes with reality, or as Freud put it, the ego obeys the reality principle -the ego has both conscious and unconscious components, so we are often aware of its actions -the superego -similar to a conscience, the superego imposes moral restraint on the id’s impulses -when moral rules are violated, the superego punishes with guilt feelings -like the ego, the superego is partly conscious and partly unconscious and tries to manage or inhibit the id’s impulses Psychodynamic system = because these three intrapsychic forces are constantly competing, there is ever- changing conflict, creating a dynamic -The oral phase occurs during the first 1 ½ years of life -sucking and chewing are pleasurable experiences; aggressive impulses emerge after the development of teeth -the anal phase (from age 1 ½ to 3 years) coincides with toilet training -during this time, parents emphasize discipline and control issues, and power struggles develop -aggressive impulses on the part of the child could lead to personality traits of negativism and stubbornness as well as the emergence of hostile, destructive, or sadistic behaviors 6 -during the phallic phase (ages 3 to 5), psychosexual energy center on the genital area and children derive pleasure from touching or rubbing the genitals -during this phase, children may develop romantic fantasies or attachments toward their opposite-sex parent -the two additional stages, the latency phase (the formant stage of psychosexual development when children are disinterested in the opposite sex) and the genital phase (the mature stage of psychosexual development), are considered to play a more limited role in abnormal behavior -in psychoanalytic theory, anxiety and depression are caused be negative experiences -depending on the age at which the experience occurs, individuals become fixated (stalled) at a stage of psychosexual development -this leaves a psychological mark on the unconscious -the goals of psychoanalysis, the treatment Freud developed, include insight, catharsis Insight = bringing the troubling material to consciousness Catharsis = releasing psychic energy -techniques to achieve these goals- free association, dream analysis Free association = the person minimizes conscious control and without selection or censorship, tell the analyst everything that comes to mind, allowing the analyst to draw out information regarding unconscious conflicts DreamAnalysis = individuals are encouraged to recall and recount their dreams, which are discussed in the analytic sessions -Freud called dreams the royal road to the unconscious -he believed that dream content included many symbolic images that revealed the meaning of unconscious conflict -another technique is interpretation Interpretation = the analyst’s silence encourages the patient’s free association. The analyst offers interpretations about these associations to uncover the patient’s resistance to treatment, to discuss the patient’s transference feelings, or to confront the patient with inconsistencies. Interpretations may focus on present issues or draw connections between the patients’past and the present Behaviorism -Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936) -received the Nobel Prize for his research on the physiology of dog digestion, which in turn led to his discovery of conditioned responses Classical conditioning = in which unconditioned stimulus (UCS) produces an unconditioned response (UCR) -John B. Watson (1878-1958) -a well-known animal psychologist, joined the faculty of Johns Hopkins University -Watson believed that the only appropriate objects of scientific study were observable behaviors, not inner thoughts or feelings 7 Behaviorism = is based on principles that consider all behavior (normal or abnormal) to be learned as a result of experiences or interactions with the environment Current Views of Abnormal Behavior and Treatment Scientist-practitioner model = when providing treating, psychologists rely on the findings of research Biological Model -the field of behavioral genetics emerged with works by Sir Francis Galton (1822-1911) and his 1869 publication, Hereditary Genius -since that time, behavioral genetics has explored the role of both genes and environment in the transmission of behavioral traits -models of genetics research are presented and specific genetic findings for the various psychological disorders will be presented Psychological Model -parents can affect their children’s behavior in at least four ways: through direction interaction, their responses to a child’s behavior, modeling certain behaviors, or merely giving instructions Modern Psychoanalytic Models -Carl Gustav Jung (1875-1961) -Jung believed that behavioral motivators were psychological and spiritual (not sexual) and that future goals rather than past events motivated behavior -AlfredAdler (1870-1937) -developed his own psychoanalytic school called individual psychology -Adler introduced several concepts that are part of everyday language and are associated with abnormal behavior: sibling rivalry, the importance of birth order, and the inferiority complex, by which real or perceived inferiority leads to efforts to compensate for the deficiency Ego Psychology = deviated from Freud by their increased focus on conscious motivations and healthy forms of human functioning Objective relations theory = addresses people’s emotional relations with important objects (in this sense, people or things to which the person is attached). This theory emphasizes that people have a basic drive for social interactions and that motivations for social contact are more than simply to satisfy sexual and aggressive instincts Behavioral Models -according to learning theory, behavior is the product of an individual’s learning history -abnormal behavior is therefore the result of maladaptive learning experiences -behavior theories do not ignore biological factors; instead they acknowledge that biology interacts with the environment to influence behavior -strict behaviorists focus on observable and measurable behavior and do not examine inner psychic causes -they believe that abnormal behavior results from environmental events that shape future behavior -South African psychiatrist, Joseph Wolpe (1915-1997) -began to study experimental neurosis (anxiety) in animals -B. F. Skinner (1904-1990) -he observed that many behaviors occurred without first being elicited by a UCS 8 Operant conditioning = behavior could be acquired or changed by the events that happened afterwards Reinforcement = a contingent even that strengthens the behavior that preceded it -Skinner identified several principles of reinforcement -first, reinforcers are always individual; What is a reinforcer for one person is not necessarily for another person -second, there are primary and secondary reinforcers Primary reinforcers = objects such as food, water, or even attentions -they have their own intrinsic value Secondary reinforcers = are objects that have acquired value because they become associated with primary reinforcers Schedulers of reinforcement = established the “when” and “how” of reinforcement and set forth conditions under which behavior was more likely to be acquired or less likely to be extinguished Shaping = a process whereby closer steps, or successive approximations, to final goal are rewarded -Albert Bandura (1925- ) Vicarious conditioning = characterized by no trial learning- the person need not actually do the behavior in order to learn it -Learning occurs when the person watches a model, someone who demonstrates a behavior -observation of another or can teach new behaviors -this kind of social learning can explain the acquisition of abnormal behaviors such -as aggression The Cognitive Model -Aaron Beck (1921- ) -the originator of cognitive therapy, people with depression have three types of negative thoughts: a negative view of the self, the world, and the future -Beck called this the negative cognitive triad -these negative assumptions are often called cognitive distortions -people may have many different types of distorted cognitive processes that affect their mood and behavior The Humanist Model Phenomenology = a school of thought that holds that one’s subjective perception of the world is more important than the actual world -Carl Rogers (1902-1987) -his theory of abnormal behavior begins with the assumption that psychopathology is associated with psychological incongruence, or a discrepancy between one’s self-image and one’s actual self -the greater the discrepancy, the more emotional and real-world problems one experiences -incongruence results from the experience of conditional positive regard- a person is treated with respect and caring only when meeting the standards set by others -the person comes to believe that he or she is worthy only when meeting those standards -because this is an inaccurate, overly demanding image, emotional or behavioral problems result -the goal of Roger’s psychotherapy, called client-centered therapy, is to release the individual’s existing capacity to self-actualize (reach full potential) through interactions with the therapist 9 -therapy is based on three components: genuineness, empathic understanding and unconditional positive regard Genuineness = that the therapist relates to the person in
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