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Psych 2035 Midterm Exam Notes.docx

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Alvin Segal
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Psych 2035 Mid-term:
Psych 2035 Midterm Exam Notes
Chapter 2 (pg. 32)
The nature of personality
What is personality?
Personality refers to an individual’s unique constellation of consistent behavioral
What are personality traits?
A personality trait is a durable disposition to behave in a particular way in a variety
of situations.
Raymond Cattell used statistical procedure factor analysis.
Factor analysis: correlations among many variables are analyzed to identify closely
related clusters of variables.
Five-Factor Model of Personality
Robert McCrae and Paul Costa used factor analysis to create a simpler, five-factor
model of personality. (Big Five)
1. Extraversion: high score=outgoing, sociable, upbeat, friendly, assertive
(positive happy outlook)
2. Neuroticism: high score= anxious, hostile, self-conscious, insecure,
vulnerable. (negative high response to stress)
3. Openness to experience: high score= curious, flexible, vivid fantasy’s,
imaginative, artistic, unconventional attitudes. (Fosters liberalism, important
4. Agreeableness: high score= sympathetic, trusting, cooperative, moders, and
straightforward. (constructive approaches to conflict solution)
5. Conscientiousness: high score= diligent, disciplined, well organized, punctual,
and dependable. (strong self discipline and ability to regulate oneself
Psychodynamic Perspectives
Psychodynamic theories include all the diverse theories descended from the work of
Sigmund Freud that focus on unconscious mental forces.
Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory

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Psych 2035 Mid-term:
Sigmund Freud: Grew up middle-class jewish home in Vienna, Austria. He was a
physician specializing in neurology when he began his medical practice in Vienna.
Devoted himself to treatment of mental disorders using an innovative procedure he
developed, called psychoanalysis
Freud’s arguments:
1. Unconscious forces govern human behavior
2. Childhood experiences strongly determine adult personality
3. Individuals’ personalities are shaped by how they cope with their sexual
Separated the personality into three components:
1. The id: is the primitive, instinctive component of personality that operates
according to the pleasure principle.
2. The ego: is the decision-making component of personality that operates
according to the reality principle.
3. The superego: is the moral component of personality that incorporates social
standards about what represents the right and wrong.
The conscious consists of whatever one is aware of at a particular point in time.
The preconscious contains the material just beneath the surface of awareness that
can be easily retrieved.
The unconscious contains thoughts, memories, and desires that are well below the
surface of conscious awareness but nonetheless exert great influence on one’s
Conflict and Defense Mechanisms
Freud assumed that behavior is the outcome of an ongoing series of internal
Freud believed that conflict’s dominate people’s lives and were centering on sexual
and aggressive impulses that are especially likely to have far-reaching
Why sex and aggression? –because sex and aggression are subject to more complex
and ambiguous social controls that other basic motives. AND he noted that the
sexual and aggressive drives are thwarted more regularly than other basic biological
Freud believed that lingering conflicts rooted in childhood experiences cause most
personality disturbances.
Defense mechanisms are largely unconscious reactions that protect a person from
painful emotions such as anxiety and guilt.

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Psych 2035 Mid-term:
Rationalization involves creating false but plausible excuses to justify unacceptable
Repression involves keeping distressing thoughts and feelings buried in unconscious.
Projection involves attributing one’s own thoughts, feelings, or motives to another
Displacement involves diverting emotional feelings (usually anger) from their
original source to a substitute target.
Reaction formation involves behaving in a way that is exactly the opposite of one’s
true feelings.
Regression involves a reversion to immature patters of behavior.
Identification involves bolstering self-esteem by forming an imaginary or real
alliance with some person or group.
Sublimation occurs when unconscious, unacceptable impulses are channeled into
socially acceptable, perhaps even admirable, behaviors.
Development: Psychosexual Stages
Freud asserted that the foundation of an individual’s personality is laid down by the
age of 5. Psychosexual stages are developmental periods with a characteristic sexual
focus that leave their mark on adult personality.
Fixation is the failure to move forward from one stage to another as expected. It is
caused by excessive gratification of needs at a particular stage or by excessive
frustration of those needs.
Five psychosexual stages:
1. Oral-mouth (nipple, pacifier)
2. Anal- erotic pleasure from bowel movements
3. Phallic stage-genitals, self-stimulation, Oedipal complex- children manifest
erotically tinged desires for their other-sex parent, accomplished by feelings
of hostility toward their same-sex parent.
4. Latency and genital stages-during puberty, sexuality is suppressed, this is the
stage after puberty when sexual urges reappear.
Jung’s Analytical Psychology
Carl Jung a swiss psychiatrist emphasized the unconscious determinants of
personality. However, he proposed that the unconscious consists of two layers:
1. Personal unconscious: is essentially the same as Freud’s version of the
unconscious. The personal unconscious houses material from one’s life that
is not within conscious awareness because it has not been repressed or
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