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Psych 2035 Midterm Exam Notes.docx

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Psychology 2035A/B
Alvin Segal

Psych 2035 Midterm Psych 2035 Midterm Exam NotesChapter 2 pg 32 The nature of personality What is personality Personality refers to an individuals unique constellation of consistent behavioral traits What are personality traits A personality trait is a durable disposition to behave in a particular way in a variety of situations Raymond Cattell used statistical procedure factor analysisFactor analysis correlations among many variables are analyzed to identify closely related clusters of variables FiveFactor Model of Personality Robert McCrae and Paul Costa used factor analysis to create a simpler fivefactor model of personality Big Five 1 Extraversion high scoreoutgoing sociable upbeat friendly assertive positive happy outlook 2 Neuroticism high score anxious hostile selfconscious insecure vulnerable negative high response to stress 3 Openness to experience high score curious flexible vivid fantasys imaginative artistic unconventional attitudes Fosters liberalism important trait 4 Agreeableness high score sympathetic trusting cooperative moders and straightforward constructive approaches to conflict solution 5 Conscientiousness high score diligent disciplined well organized punctual and dependable strong self discipline and ability to regulate oneself effectivelyPsychodynamic Perspectives Psychodynamic theories include all the diverse theories descended from the work of Sigmund Freud that focus on unconscious mental forces Freuds Psychoanalytic Theory Psych 2035 Midterm Sigmund Freud Grew up middleclass jewish home in Vienna Austria He was a physician specializing in neurology when he began his medical practice in Vienna Devoted himself to treatment of mental disorders using an innovative procedure he developed called psychoanalysis Freuds arguments 1 Unconscious forces govern human behavior 2 Childhood experiences strongly determine adult personality 3 Individuals personalities are shaped by how they cope with their sexual urges Separated the personality into three components 1 The id is the primitive instinctive component of personality that operates according to the pleasure principle2 The ego is the decisionmaking component of personality that operates according to the reality principle 3 The superego is the moral component of personality that incorporates social standards about what represents the right and wrong The conscious consists of whatever one is aware of at a particular point in time The preconscious contains the material just beneath the surface of awareness that can be easily retrieved The unconscious contains thoughts memories and desires that are well below the surface of conscious awareness but nonetheless exert great influence on ones behavior Conflict and Defense Mechanisms Freud assumed that behavior is the outcome of an ongoing series of internal conflicts Freud believed that conflicts dominate peoples lives and were centering on sexual and aggressive impulses that are especially likely to have farreaching consequences Why sex and aggression because sex and aggression are subject to more complex and ambiguous social controls that other basic motives AND he noted that the sexual and aggressive drives are thwarted more regularly than other basic biological urgesFreud believed that lingering conflicts rooted in childhood experiences cause most personality disturbancesDefense mechanisms are largely unconscious reactions that protect a person from painful emotions such as anxiety and guiltPsych 2035 Midterm Rationalization involves creating false but plausible excuses to justify unacceptable behavior Repression involves keeping distressing thoughts and feelings buried in unconsciousProjection involves attributing ones own thoughts feelings or motives to another Displacement involves diverting emotional feelings usually anger from their original source to a substitute target Reaction formation involves behaving in a way that is exactly the opposite of ones true feelings Regression involves a reversion to immature patters of behavior Identification involves bolstering selfesteem by forming an imaginary or real alliance with some person or group Sublimation occurs when unconscious unacceptable impulses are channeled into socially acceptable perhaps even admirable behaviorsDevelopment Psychosexual StagesFreud asserted that the foundation of an individuals personality is laid down by the age of 5 Psychosexual stages are developmental periods with a characteristic sexual focus that leave their mark on adult personalityFixation is the failure to move forward from one stage to another as expected It is caused by excessive gratification of needs at a particular stage or by excessive frustration of those needsFive psychosexual stages 1 Oralmouth nipple pacifier 2 Anal erotic pleasure from bowel movements 3 Phallic stagegenitals selfstimulation Oedipal complex children manifest erotically tinged desires for their othersex parent accomplished by feelings of hostility toward their samesex parent 4 Latency and genital stagesduring puberty sexuality is suppressed this is the stage after puberty when sexual urges reappear Jungs Analytical Psychology Carl Jung a swiss psychiatrist emphasized the unconscious determinants of personality However he proposed that the unconscious consists of two layers 1 Personal unconscious is essentially the same as Freuds version of the unconscious The personal unconscious houses material from ones life that is not within conscious awareness because it has not been repressed or forgotten
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