Psychology 2035A/B Study Guide - Fall 2018, Comprehensive Midterm Notes -

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Psychology 2035A/B
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
Fall 2018
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Understanding Yourself and Others – Chapter 1: Introduction to Psychology
of Adjustment
Appendix: Learning Objectives for Session 1
-What is the Paradox of Progress?
Describe three examples of the paradox of progress.
Explain what is meant by the paradox of progress and how theorists have explained it.
Describe some common problems with self-help books and what to look for in quality self-help books.
-What is the “Psychology of Adjustment”?
Describe the two key facets of psychology.
Explain the concept of adjustment.
-Why is the scientific approach to behaviour so important?
Explain the nature of empiricism and the advantages of the scientific approach to behaviour.
Identify and describe the various stages of the research process in psychology.
Identify & explain the three tenets of causality in social sciences research
Describe the experimental method, distinguishing between independent and dependent variables and between
experimental and control groups.
Distinguish between positive and negative correlation, and explain what the size of a correlation coefficient
means.
Describe three correlational research methods.
Compare the advantages and disadvantages of experimental versus correlational research.
Adjusting to Modern Life – Ch.1: Introduction
-What is the “Psychology of Adjustment”?
-Why is the scientific approach to behaviour so important?
The Psychology of Adjustment
-Psychology:
The profession that applies the accumulated knowledge of this science to practical problems
The science that studies behaviour and the physiological and mental processes that underlie it
-Behaviour:
“Any overt (observable) response”
-Adjustment:
The psychological processes through which people manage or cope with the demands and challenges of
everyday life
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“… the basic challenge of modern life…”
“… has become the search for meaning, a sense of direction, and a personal philosophy… this involves struggling with
problems as forming a solid sense of identity, arriving at a coherent set of values, and developing a clear vision of a future
that realistically promises fulfillment”
-How might the search for meaning impact:
… our own psychological health?
… how we behave toward others?
A scientific approach to behaviour
-Empiricism: the premise that knowledge should be acquired through observation
Conclusions from psychological research are based on careful, systemic observation rather than speculation or
“common sense”
-Why cant we rely on common sense?
Psychology is NOT Just Common Sense
-Some research might confirm our intuitions…
However, some common sense contradicts other common sense
-Hindsight bias:
tendency to exaggerate one’s ability to have foreseen how something turned out
-Empiricism: psychologists conduct research to test their ideas
The Research Process:
-This process an take anywhere from 1-5 years
The Peer Review Process
-Ch. 9, p. 268
“…couples who participated in exciting activities
together vs. just spending time together showed
increases in relationship satisfaction…
…(Reissman, Aron, & Bergen, 1993)”
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Document Summary

Understanding yourself and others chapter 1: introduction to psychology of adjustment. What is the psychology of adjustment : describe the two key facets of psychology, explain the concept of adjustment. Psychology: the profession that applies the accumulated knowledge of this science to practical problems, the science that studies behaviour and the physiological and mental processes that underlie it. Adjustment: the psychological processes through which people manage or cope with the demands and challenges of everyday life. Empiricism: the premise that knowledge should be acquired through observation: conclusions from psychological research are based on careful, systemic observation rather than speculation or. Some research might confirm our intuitions : however, some common sense contradicts other common sense. Hindsight bias: tendency to exaggerate one"s ability to have foreseen how something turned out. Empiricism: psychologists conduct research to test their ideas. This process an take anywhere from 1-5 years.

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