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Psychology 2036A/B

Chapter 6: Hospital Stays and Medical Procedures • Outpatient: a person who goes to the hospital for a procedure or test but does not stay overnight • Non-Invasive: a term to describe a procedure that doesn’t include piercing the skin or entering the body with an instrument • Day Care patient: a person who goes to the hospital for a procedure or test that is more involved than, for example, routine radiography, but does not stay overnight • Total institution: any institution, such as a hospital, that takes control of virtually every aspect of a person’s day-to-day life • Reactance: behaving counter to recommendations in response to the feeling that one has lost personal control over health behaviours; the non-compliant behaviours and attitudes of patients who perceive hospital rules and regimes to be unacceptable challenges to their freedom • Learned helplessness: a state in which a person, because of experience with previously uncontrollable stressful situations, learns to do nothing about a new stressor, rather than trying to cope constructively with it • Empowering care: patient care that yields independence and results in learned mastery • Disempowering care: patient care that yields dependence and can result in learned helplessness • Monitors: people who seek information in their attempt to cope with illness and its accompanying challenges • Blunters: people who avoid information in their attempt to cope with illness and its accompanying challenges • Uniformity Myth: Beliefs that all patients should receive the same amount of information in their preparation for a hospital stay regardless of their personal styles of coping with stress • Depersonalization: taking away a person’s sense of individuality • Dehumanization: the tendency to see people as objects or body parts rather than human beings • Therapeutic rituals: nurse-patient • Occupational rituals: nurse-nurse • Technical Care: activities involving prescribed medical procedures, independent of the psychological needs of the patient • Socio-emotional care: interactions that help patients maintain a sense of optimism and psychological well-being • Burnout: a condition that is similar to compassion fatigue and includes symptoms of physical exhaustion, depersonalization or patients and feelings of discouragement and low accomplishment • Patient-centred approach: approach in which patients and families become active members of the treatment team • Invasiveness: a measure of the extent to which hospital procedures, in a physical sense, involve piercing the skin or entering the body with instruments or, in a psychological sense, have the potential to cause embarrassment • False positive: result that indicates abnormality when none exists • Benign breast biopsy: when the results of a biopsy procedure show no evidence of malignancy • Claustrophobia: an intense fear of enclosed spaces; a psychological concern for those undergoing MRI procedures • Motion artefacts: distortions to an MRI image caused by a patient’s movement • Fear of suffocation: suffocation anxiety experienced due the belief that one might die from the inability to breathe • Fear of restriction: anxiety experienced due to the inability to move when in a small, enclosed space • Day surgery: surgery that does not require the patient to stay in the hospital overnight • Hospital separation: a measure of hospital usage calculated as an overnight hospital stay for one person • Triage: the sorting of patients in the ER • Continuity of care: arrangement in which a designated staff person, usually a nurse, takes primary responsibility for a patient during a hospital stay • Patient controlled analgesia (PCA): analgesic administration that is independently controlled by the patient • Lock-out interval: the time period between allowable dosages, when patient controlled analgesia is used. A device is set by a practitioner to control this period • Incommunication stage: a period in the ICU during which a patient is either unconscious or barely conscious • Readaptation stage: a period in ICU when a patient can sense a struggle to recover and recognizes his or her dependence on machines • Reflection stage: a period during which a patient who was in ICU tries to piece together his or her recent experience • Relocation stress (translocation stress): the stress caused by being separated from those things that were keeping patients alive – the one on one care and the technology • Expertise model: model in which the physician and the intensive-care team are assumed to be best informed and most objective, and therefore best equipped to make end-of-life decisions • Negotiated model: decision making model that allows decision making to be shared among the practitioners, patient and family. • Discharge planning : a process in which post hospital care is organized and risks, such as social problems and lack of support are assessed • Progressive illness: a condition that will continue to worsen in spite of treatment • Advanced illness: stage of illness when death is imminent • Palliative care: care intended to maintain a good quality of life for a patient in the advanced illness stage, reduce pain and make everything bearable • Mixed management model of care: the preparation of a patient for eventual death while simultaneously providing life- sustaining treatments Chapter 12: Health Promotion • Health promotion: strategies intended to maintain or improve the health of large populations • Medical level of health promotion: the orientation is disease-based and the goal is disease treatment • Public health level of health promotion: the orientation is behaviour based and the goal is disease prevention • Socio-environmental level of health promotion: the orientation is toward social change and public health policy • Social determinants of health: factors such as income, social support, education, working conditions, and culture that have a significant effect on health at the population level • Self care: behaviours such as exercise, diet, voluntary screening and regular medical checkups that people engage in to promote their health • Pap test: a test done to screen for cervical cancer • Mutual aid: responsibility to family, friends, loved ones and even society as a whole when it comes to health and safety • Social support: a collection of interpersonal resources that we have at our disposal to help us avoid or cope with difficult times in our lives • Naturally occurring support: the support we obtain from friends, relatives, co-workers, and others in our own social networks • Agency provided support: social support provided by agencies and organizations that have been formed to fill the void when naturally occurring support is either lacking or unavailable • Practical support: help with the demands of daily living, such as getting meals and rides to the doctor • Informational support: the provision of information such as treatment options or typical recovery times from a treatment or injury • Emotional support: support provided by people who take the time to understand our fears and frustrations, who help calm us during anxious times, who help bring our moods up or distract us from our worries • Health belief model: analyzes health behaviour in terms of the belief that a health threat exists and the belief that a given form of action will affect the threat • Theory of reasoned action: posits that behaviour is preceded by intention, and that the intention is influenced by beliefs about the behaviour and subjective norms • Theory of planned behaviour: posits that behaviour is preceded by intention and that our intention is influenced not only by subjective norms and beliefs about the efficacy of the behaviour, but also by the belief that one is actually capable of performing the behaviour • Persuasion: the attempt to change people’s attitudes and beliefs • Attitude: a cognition in which a person evaluates some object or idea • Central route to persuasion: logic, fact, reason • Peripheral route to persuasion: emotional • Fear appeals: the attempt to change behaviour by using fear (smoking = lung cancer = death) • Threat perception: the belief that a threat is real and that we are vulnerable to it • Drive- reduction theory: suggest we are driven to reduce the tension brought about by the deprivation or other negative states • Response efficacy: the perception that a threat reducing strategy will work • Self-efficacy: an individual’s perception of his/her ability to succeed at a particular task at a specific time • Self-accountability: the extent to which a person feels personally responsible for a given emotion or situation • Message framing: the extent to which positive or negative aspects of an outcome are emphasized in a health promotion message • Arbitrary standards: body that exists outside the community involved in the promotional campaign •
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