Psychology 2036A/B Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Clinical Nurse Specialist, Radiography, Nocebo

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Published on 17 Apr 2013
School
Western University
Department
Psychology
Course
Psychology 2036A/B
Professor
Chapter 6: Hospital Stays and Medical Procedures
Outpatient: a person who goes to the hospital for a procedure or test but does not stay overnight
Non-Invasive: a term to describe a procedure that doesn’t include piercing the skin or entering the body with an
instrument
Day Care patient: a person who goes to the hospital for a procedure or test that is more involved than, for example,
routine radiography, but does not stay overnight
Total institution: any institution, such as a hospital, that takes control of virtually every aspect of a person’s day-to-day
life
Reactance: behaving counter to recommendations in response to the feeling that one has lost personal control over
health behaviours; the non-compliant behaviours and attitudes of patients who perceive hospital rules and regimes to
be unacceptable challenges to their freedom
Learned helplessness: a state in which a person, because of experience with previously uncontrollable stressful
situations, learns to do nothing about a new stressor, rather than trying to cope constructively with it
Empowering care: patient care that yields independence and results in learned mastery
Disempowering care: patient care that yields dependence and can result in learned helplessness
Monitors: people who seek information in their attempt to cope with illness and its accompanying challenges
Blunters: people who avoid information in their attempt to cope with illness and its accompanying challenges
Uniformity Myth: Beliefs that all patients should receive the same amount of information in their preparation for a
hospital stay regardless of their personal styles of coping with stress
Depersonalization: taking away a person’s sense of individuality
Dehumanization: the tendency to see people as objects or body parts rather than human beings
Therapeutic rituals: nurse-patient
Occupational rituals: nurse-nurse
Technical Care: activities involving prescribed medical procedures, independent of the psychological needs of the
patient
Socio-emotional care: interactions that help patients maintain a sense of optimism and psychological well-being
Burnout: a condition that is similar to compassion fatigue and includes symptoms of physical exhaustion,
depersonalization or patients and feelings of discouragement and low accomplishment
Patient-centred approach: approach in which patients and families become active members of the treatment team
Invasiveness: a measure of the extent to which hospital procedures, in a physical sense, involve piercing the skin or
entering the body with instruments or, in a psychological sense, have the potential to cause embarrassment
False positive: result that indicates abnormality when none exists
Benign breast biopsy: when the results of a biopsy procedure show no evidence of malignancy
Claustrophobia: an intense fear of enclosed spaces; a psychological concern for those undergoing MRI procedures
Motion artefacts: distortions to an MRI image caused by a patient’s movement
Fear of suffocation: suffocation anxiety experienced due the belief that one might die from the inability to breathe
Fear of restriction: anxiety experienced due to the inability to move when in a small, enclosed space
Day surgery: surgery that does not require the patient to stay in the hospital overnight
Hospital separation: a measure of hospital usage calculated as an overnight hospital stay for one person
Triage: the sorting of patients in the ER
Continuity of care: arrangement in which a designated staff person, usually a nurse, takes primary responsibility for a
patient during a hospital stay
Patient controlled analgesia (PCA): analgesic administration that is independently controlled by the patient
Lock-out interval: the time period between allowable dosages, when patient controlled analgesia is used. A device is
set by a practitioner to control this period
Incommunication stage: a period in the ICU during which a patient is either unconscious or barely conscious
Readaptation stage: a period in ICU when a patient can sense a struggle to recover and recognizes his or her
dependence on machines
Reflection stage: a period during which a patient who was in ICU tries to piece together his or her recent experience
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Relocation stress (translocation stress): the stress caused by being separated from those things that were keeping
patients alive – the one on one care and the technology
Expertise model: model in which the physician and the intensive-care team are assumed to be best informed and most
objective, and therefore best equipped to make end-of-life decisions
Negotiated model: decision making model that allows decision making to be shared among the practitioners, patient
and family.
Discharge planning : a process in which post hospital care is organized and risks, such as social problems and lack of
support are assessed
Progressive illness: a condition that will continue to worsen in spite of treatment
Advanced illness: stage of illness when death is imminent
Palliative care: care intended to maintain a good quality of life for a patient in the advanced illness stage, reduce pain
and make everything bearable
Mixed management model of care: the preparation of a patient for eventual death while simultaneously providing life-
sustaining treatments
Chapter 12: Health Promotion
Health promotion: strategies intended to maintain or improve the health of large populations
Medical level of health promotion: the orientation is disease-based and the goal is disease treatment
Public health level of health promotion: the orientation is behaviour based and the goal is disease prevention
Socio-environmental level of health promotion: the orientation is toward social change and public health policy
Social determinants of health: factors such as income, social support, education, working conditions, and culture that
have a significant effect on health at the population level
Self care: behaviours such as exercise, diet, voluntary screening and regular medical checkups that people engage in to
promote their health
Pap test: a test done to screen for cervical cancer
Mutual aid: responsibility to family, friends, loved ones and even society as a whole when it comes to health and
safety
Social support: a collection of interpersonal resources that we have at our disposal to help us avoid or cope with
difficult times in our lives
Naturally occurring support: the support we obtain from friends, relatives, co-workers, and others in our own social
networks
Agency provided support: social support provided by agencies and organizations that have been formed to fill the void
when naturally occurring support is either lacking or unavailable
Practical support: help with the demands of daily living, such as getting meals and rides to the doctor
Informational support: the provision of information such as treatment options or typical recovery times from a
treatment or injury
Emotional support: support provided by people who take the time to understand our fears and frustrations, who help
calm us during anxious times, who help bring our moods up or distract us from our worries
Health belief model: analyzes health behaviour in terms of the belief that a health threat exists and the belief that a
given form of action will affect the threat
Theory of reasoned action: posits that behaviour is preceded by intention, and that the intention is influenced by beliefs
about the behaviour and subjective norms
Theory of planned behaviour: posits that behaviour is preceded by intention and that our intention is influenced not
only by subjective norms and beliefs about the efficacy of the behaviour, but also by the belief that one is actually
capable of performing the behaviour
Persuasion: the attempt to change people’s attitudes and beliefs
Attitude: a cognition in which a person evaluates some object or idea
Central route to persuasion: logic, fact, reason
Peripheral route to persuasion: emotional
Fear appeals: the attempt to change behaviour by using fear (smoking = lung cancer = death)
Threat perception: the belief that a threat is real and that we are vulnerable to it
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Document Summary

Total institution: any institution, such as a hospital, that takes control of virtually every aspect of a person"s day-to-day life. Reactance: behaving counter to recommendations in response to the feeling that one has lost personal control over health behaviours; the non-compliant behaviours and attitudes of patients who perceive hospital rules and regimes to be unacceptable challenges to their freedom. Learned helplessness: a state in which a person, because of experience with previously uncontrollable stressful situations, learns to do nothing about a new stressor, rather than trying to cope constructively with it. Technical care: activities involving prescribed medical procedures, independent of the psychological needs of the patient. Socio-emotional care: interactions that help patients maintain a sense of optimism and psychological well-being. Burnout: a condition that is similar to compassion fatigue and includes symptoms of physical exhaustion, depersonalization or patients and feelings of discouragement and low accomplishment. Patient-centred approach: approach in which patients and families become active members of the treatment team.

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