Study Guides (248,609)
Canada (121,634)
Psychology (1,715)
Prof (4)
Final

Psych study notes.doc

7 Pages
150 Views

Department
Psychology
Course Code
Psychology 2036A/B
Professor
Prof

This preview shows pages 1 and half of page 2. Sign up to view the full 7 pages of the document.
Description
Psychology of Health and Illness Chapter One: The Development of the Field Clinical psychologists have long recognized that there are psychological consequences associated with ill health, as well as physical consequences associated with many psychological disorders. Behavioural Medicine: a branch of medicine concerned with the relationship between health and behaviour. The focus usually on remediation. Health Psychology: The application of psychological principles to the diagnosis and treatment of illness as well as to people’s attempts to maintain health and well-being. Psychosomatic Medicine: approach in which a particular medical complaint is viewed as being the result of an underlying chronic emotional conflict that ultimately surfaces in the form of physiological symptoms Germ theory: the discovery that many illnesses are caused by the activity of micro-organisms, such as bacteria (Neal Miller) Gradient of Reinforcement: the gradual weakening of a behaviour the further it gets in time from the reinforcement of that behaviour Delayed gratification: term used by behaviourists to describe a situation in which there is a time lag between a behaviour and its reinforcement Asymptomatic: conditions that are not accompanied by palpable symptoms or sensations Coping styles: strategies that an individual employs to deal with stresses caused by ever-changing demands if the environment Monitors: people who seek information in their attempts to cope with illness and its accompanying challenges Blunter: people who avoid information in their attempt to cope with illness and its accompanying challenges Psychoneuroimmunology (PNI): the study of the relationship between psychological states and the functioning immune system Immunocompetence: the extent to which our immune system is functioning properly to ward of micro-organisms Malignant neoplasm: cancerous growths that may be treated by radiation and chemical therapy Biopsychosocial Approach: a model that suggests that biological, psychological and social factors are all involved in any given state of health or illness Biomedical Model: an approach suggesting that health is best understood in terms of biology Health belief model: a model that analyzes health behaviour in terms of the belief that a health threat exists and the belief that a given course of action will affect the threat Response efficacy belief: the perception that a threat-reducing strategy will work Cost-gain belief: an individual’s assessment of the costs associated with a course of action (eg. Effort, discomfort, embarrassment, or inconvenience) compared to the benefit of the behaviour to the individual’s health Theory of reasoned action: a theory that behaviour is preceded by intention and that our intention is influenced by beliefs about the behaviour and subjective norms Subjective norms: beliefs regarding what others this we should do and the extent to which we are motivated to go along with these people. Perceived behavioural control: the belief that a specific behaviour is within one’s control Theory of planned behaviour: behaviour is preceded by intention and that intention is influenced not only by subjective norms and beliefs about the efficacy of the behaviour, but also by the belief that one is actually capable of performing the behaviour Gollwitzer’s Implementation intentions Model: people who have an implementation plan are much more likely to engage in the behaviour = higher level of commitment Bagozzi’s Goal Theory: to have a goal increases the likelihood of a particular behaviour Multi-stage Models: step by step explanation for how someone develops intention and then carries the intention through to behaviour, both short and long term The health Action Process Approach (HAPA): Motivational (positive outlock) followed by volitional (planning and following through) The Stages of Change Model: model in which change is broken down into six stages: pre-contemplation, contemplation, action, maintenance, termination and relapse Individualist: one who focuses on independence and self-reliance rather than placing group needs above his or her own Collectivist: one who considers him or herself to be part of a greater whole and who considers individualism to be less important than allegiance to the group CHAPTER SUMMARY Health psychology is the application of psychological principles to the diagnosis and treatment of an illness as well as to people’s attempts to maintain health and well-being. Health psychology grew from behavioural and cognitive perspectives. The early focus was on affecting health-related behaviour. This expanded to include the relationship between people’s thinking and their health. Behaviour, thought, and emotion have all been tied to physiological processes through the study of Psychoneuroimmunology. Health psychology has grown quickly as a field due to the changing nature of modern health problems. Over the last hundred years, the main causes of death have changed; today more people die from lifestyle choices than from bacterial infections. As a result, a comprehensive understanding of health requires a multi-disciplinary approach that includes social sciences such as psychology. The health belief model analyzes health behaviour in terms of the belief that a health threat exists and the belief that a given course of action will affect the threat. The theory of reasoned action posits that behaviour is preceded by intention and that intention is influenced by beliefs about the behaviour and subjective norms. The theory of planned behaviour is similar to the reasoned action but adds that intention is influenced not only by subjective norms and beliefs about the efficacy of the behaviour, but also by the belief that one is actually capable of performing the behaviour. Chapter Two: Systems of the Body Homeostasis: the dynamic physiological response on the part of the body to maintain a stable internal state in spite of the demands of the environment Neurons: nerve cells Afferent Neurons: nerve cells that take impulse messages from a sense organ to the central nervous system, or from lower to higher levels in the spinal cord Efferent neurons: nerve cells that take impulses away from the brain Synapse: a gap between neurons that is crossed by neurotransmitters that neurons use to communicate with one another Central nervous system: the division of the nervous system that is composed of the brain and the spinal cord Peripheral nervous system: the division of the nervous system that is made up of the somatic nervous system and the autonomic nervous system (which is further divided into the sympathetic [Thoracic and lumbar, “Fight or flight”, Second stage neurons are far from the target organ] and parasympathetic nervous [Cranial and sacral, “Rest and restore”, Second stage neurons are near the target organ] systems) Glial Cells: make up about 90% of the CNS and are the support system for neurons, providing nourishment and helping neurons maintain proper physical orientation to each other (glue in Greek) Oligodendrocytes: extensions rich in myelin create myelin sheaths in CNS Schwann Cells: similar to function of oligodendrocytes but in PNS, can guide axonal regeneration Astrocytes: largest glia, star- shaped, many funtions Microglia: involved in response to injury or disease -Myelin is wrapped around axons Blood brain barrier: acts as a sentinel for materials that enter the brain via the bloodstream Meningitis: an inflammation of the membranes that protect the brain and spinal cord. It takes its name from the meninges, the membranes that provide further protection and keep the fluid contained within the CNS. There are three of these membranes, positioned between the protective bone layer and nerve tissue [Dura mater – tough outer membrane, Arachnoid membrane – web-like, Pia mater – adheres to CNS surface] Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF): cushions brain CNS PNS Myelin- Oligodendrocytes Schwann cells providing glia Clusters of Nuclei Ganglia cell bodies (singular nucleus) (singular ganglion) Bundles of Tracts Nerves axons ~The Brain~ Brain Stem: an area at the base of the brain that connects the brain to the spinal cord. The brain stem controls some very basic functions, such as breathing and sleep-wake cycles. It is also involved in maintaining posture and balance Cerebellum: the “little brain” the cerebellum appears above the brain stem. It contributes to our control of balance and the coordination of voluntary movement Hypothalamus: the portion of the brain that initiates the stress response in both the nervous system and the endocrine system Thalamus: located above the hypothalamus, it manages synaptic input to the brain, sending impulses to the appropriate part of the brain Occipital lobes: visual cortex and are responsible for interpreting impulses that come through light sensitive receptors in the eyes Temporal lobes: interpretation of sound Parietal lobes: responsible for processing sensory information other than hearing and vision, such as touch and temperature regulation Frontal lobes: responsible for voluntary movement, language, though processing and emotion. Sensory cortex: responsible for sensory activities in specific parts of the body as well as for sensations from the skin, muscles and joints Motor Cortex: in charge of movement Central Sulcus: deep channel separating the frontal and parietal lobes Broca’s area: controls speech production Wernicke’s area: controls the understanding of language Cerebrovascular Accidents: CVD, strokes, in which blood flow to the brain is blocked Ischemic Stroke: a stroke caused by a blockage Hemorrhagic Stroke: a stroke that is cause by a blood vessel rupture ~The Peripheral Nervous System Sensory afferents: carry sensory information to the brain via the spinal cord Somatic Nervous System: responsible for voluntary activity and controls skeletal muscles Autonomic Nervous System: responsible for involuntary activity and controls the cardiac muscle of the heart, smooth muscle of the internal organs, and most glands. This system is very important in the maintenance of homeostasis Sympathetic nervous System: responsible for the flight or fight response when triggered by the hypothalamus Parasympathetic nervous system: the component of the autonomic nervous system th
More Less
Unlock Document

Only pages 1 and half of page 2 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Unlock Document
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Unlock Document

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit