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Exam #2-Review.docx

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Western University
Psychology 2036A/B

Chapter 5: Risky Health Behaviours  Unintentional Injuries—accidents or unplanned events—leading cause of injury and death among children 1-14, adolescents 15-24, and adults 25-44 • Common cause of unintended injury is automobile accidents—leading cause of death for adolescents ages 16-20 • Risky behaviour that begin during adolescence continue into adulthood • WHO defines risk as the probability of an adverse outcome or that occurrence of an event that raises probability—an action that increases the probability of an adverse outcome • Current findings show that the provisional or graduated licences have helped reduce adolescent accidents and other driving related incidences by 9% to 41% • The frequency of deaths among motorcycle riders also may explain why emergency department physicians sometimes call them “organ donors” • Driving is one of the few heath behaviours with repeated practise lessens risky outcomes Violence: Intentional use of force against another person, community, or even against oneself— suicide is an act of violence • Each year in the US more than 2.2 million injuries and over 50,000 deaths are attributed to violence Emotional Abuse—Psychological intimidation and trauma that can include physical acts • Childhood aggression represented a stable behavioural style that links male peer aggressive behaviour to violence toward their spouse and children • Dating Violence research revealed that 10% of females reported being physically hurt in some way by their dating partner th • Suicide is the 11 leading cause of death in the US • Centers for Disease Control (CDC) study reports that deaths due to suicide are more th th prevalent among males (8 leading cause of death for males and 16 for females) • Men 75 or older commit suicide at a rate of 37.4 per 100,000 (8 per 100,000 for females aged 40-50) • Individuals 65+ commit one suicide for every four attempts a ratio 1:4—young adults report one suicide for every 100-200 attempts for a ratio of 1:100-200 • Suicide is the second leading cause of death for Native Americans and Alaskan Natives, affecting primarily adolescents and adults ages 15-34 • WHO reports that suicide rates are highest in western and eastern Europe and Soviet Union, China and Japan while the African continents and the South Pacific report the lowest • Individuals between the ages of 1-44, unintentional injuries pose the greatest health risk • Cigarettes remain the leading preventable cause of death and the leading cause of death due to disease in the United States—smoking causes more deaths than AIDS, alcohol, automobile accidents, cocaine, fires, heroin, homicides, and suicides combined Theories of Substance Use: • Cognitive-Affective Theories: Propose that three factors influence the likelihood of substance use—an adolescents positive attitude about substance use, the endorsement of substance use by others, and an individual’s decision that the benefits of substance use outweigh the costs (Reasoned Action Theory and Planned Behaviour) • Social Learning Theory: Substance use is explained as a behaviour rooted in the attitudes and beliefs of the adolescent’s role models, close friends, and parents • Conventional Commitment Theories: View Adolescents level of attachment to conventional social institutions, such as the family, school, religion as buffers against substance use—buffers protect an adolescent from initiating substance use behaviours –weal bonds will lead to lack of commitment to the social norms that help guide behaviour and will lead to deviant behaviours—deviant behaviour is not brought about by a desire to rebel but rather by an absence of close personal ties • Personality Trait Theories—Individual characteristics of the adolescents and their social setting may influence the timing and occurrence of substance use—generalized stress and lower-self-esteem may explain more about the likelihood of substance use than conventional commitment or social normative beliefs • Integration Theories—examines early substance use behaviour in the context of other problem behaviours that may occur—suggests that adolescents who exhibit one problem behaviour, such as substance use, are prone to engage in other problem behaviour also (peer cluster theory—focuses on the role of peers in influencing substance use, and the model of vulnerability which suggest a genetic or biological determinant of substance use) • Excessive alcohol consumption is the 3 leading cause of preventable deaths in the US —approx. 75,000 people a year in the US die related to excessive alcohol • Heavy Drinking = 5 or more drinks in a day • Binge Drinking = 5+ in a single setting (2 hours) • Cirrhosis—scarring of the liver • 2004 approx. 2,000 children died in traffic accidents caused by someone who consumed excessive amounts of booze • Colleges located in the states with more stringent restrictions on booze consumption reported the lowest level of adult binge drinking in general and lower binge drinking rates on college campuses (NELSON) • Substance use is progressive (gateway theory) suggesting that adolescent use begins with legal substances and then will progress into other illicit drugs—booze and alcohol are considered the “gateway drugs” (KANDEL) –this theory is true could inform policy to reduce or halt illicit substance use among adolescents • Build-up of dopamine—intensifies and prolongs feelings of euphoria • 2 forms of cocaine –powder form --hydrochloride salt—processed form of the drug that have been neutralized by an acid to produce a powdery substance and crack—and alternative form that has not been neutralized and remains a rock crystal that is often heated and smoked • Heroin—is a natural substance that is extracted from the seedpod of a poppy plant found most commonly in Asia • Meth causes hyperthermia—a condition in which the body absorbs or produces too much heat • African American adolescents engage in sexual behaviour earlier than many other ethnic groups • Rather than encouraging individuals to practise safer sexual behaviour to minimize the spread of disease we now need to encourage safer practises to reduce the risk of death due to STDs and to encourage the prevention or reduction of risky sexual behaviours • Anorexia is a psychological disorder that is characterized by a severe disturbance in eating behaviours—causes of the psychopathology underlying anorexia are thought to include biological factors, environmental factors, or developmental factors • Amenorrhea—or cessation of menstruation, are the primary criteria for diagnosing this condition Chapter 6: Emotional Health and Well­Being  • An interdisciplinary View of Health, well-being describes the state of the body (physical) , the mind (psychological), the spirit, and social relations (emotions).It offers a holistic view of health similar to the ecological model, with on distinction. The ecological model includes physical environment factors as well as health systems and health policy determinants of health Biomedical Model: Proposed that health is the absence of disease of dysfunction—disease was defined as an abnormality, specifically a dysfunction of or deviation in a body organ or other body structure When diseases occur this model suggests that locating and eradicating the illness will resotre a person to good health The irrefutable association between a specific organism and a specific disease convinced many Western scientists that illnesses were indeed caused only by microorganisms Pateur’s work pioneered the use of vaccines to prevent infectious diseases—further support the germ theory of disease Koch’s discovery of the relationship between microorganisms and disease, and Pasteur’s discovery of vaccines that protect individuals from such microorganisms explained the origins of illness • Limitations—the assertion that only physical agents cause illness • By focusing on the physical causes of illness, the biomedical model overlooks emotional or psychological determinants that also influence well-being • It proposes that a change in normal bodily functions that results in a deviation from or dysfunction of the body signals a problem to be rectified • To summarize, the biomedical defines dysfunctionality as an illness and interprets physiological symptoms as signs of the illness –a person who is deaf has a dysfunctional auditory system—yet few would determine that a deaf person has an illness Biopsychosocial Model: (Holistic Health Model or Biopsychosocial Model) supports the belief, endorsed by many in health psychology, that well-being is determined by biological (bio), psychological (psycho), and sociological (social) factors  Factor #1: Emotions—Hippocrates he identified that illnesses were in fact emotional— believed that imbalance of black bile, would lead to sadness or melancholy, while an imbalance of yellow bile, led to anger • One way that emotions affect our immune system is through the nerve fibers in our bodies—fibers connect the central nervous system (CNS) the control center for our or biologically speaking, the brain and the brain stem • Nerve fibers act like cables carrying info from receptors (skin, muscles and other sites) to our CNS • The message is carried by neurochemical called neurotransmitters that travel within the neuron cables • Dendrites receive the neurochemical message from other cells—once the message is received the axon another nerve fiber that extend from the cell body carries the message to neighbouring cells • The nerve cables are either afferent nerve fibers or efferent nerve fibers • Affertent nerve fibers carry info to the CNS from the receptor sites • Efferent nerve fibers carry info from the periphery of the body to coordinate the response • Epinephrine is a stress hormone that helps to suppress the immune system— supressing he immune system decreases the body’s ability to fight foreign or disease and increases the risk of contracting a disease • Hippocrates was incorrect when characterizing the process by which emotions contribute to health • Researches still argue that the bio-psychological model still places biology at the core of the definition Wellness Model: Still includes the same psychological, social, and emotional factors included in the Biopsychosocial model but it adds QOL and spirituality • Defines health according to an individual’s assessment of his or her own state of physical, mental, emotional and spiritual well-being • Spirituality—not necessarily referring to religious dogma but the impact of an individual’s philosophy, values, and meaning of life • Migraines are considered a neurological disorder of unknown origins—researches believe that migraines may be associated with depression and anxiety suggesting an emotional basis for the illness • Research on the effects of spirituality on well-being suggests that spirituality offers some individual tranquility in troubled times, guidance on healthy lifestyles and behaviours, and emotional wellness, all of which contribute to well-being Social Ecological Model: Focuses on 3 main determinants unique to the social ecological model—physical and psychological, environmentals, health systems, and health policy • Environmental Determinants—Social environments—interpersonal, familial, and cultural factors that affect an individual’s emotional state of well-being—Physical and perceived quality of that space as a determinant of health • Dr. Farmer is an infectious disease specialist, someone who studies and treats contagious diseases –Chapels in hospitals and chaplains in medical centers are but 2 examples of the complex relationship between faith and health in modern culture • Ecological Model—explains the interactive impact of the environment and individuals (waste and sewer issues in the 1800s) • Its other unique aspect is its inclusion of health systems and health policy, specifically the regulatory agencies and regulations that define the structure of health care and that regulate its services, as distinct determinants of health outcomes • Workplace environments—psychological factors in the environment can also be subtle —Nurses in Japan—nurses working operating rooms = high levels of fatigue, intensive care unit = high levels of anxiety, surgical or internal medicine units = high levels of depression Positive Psychology: Builds on the wellness model of health and is a more complete and balanced perspective of the human experience—involves a systematic study of the factors that enhance and maintain an individual’s state of well-being • Character Strengths most strongly related with Life Satisfaction = HOPE—ZEST— GRATITUDE—CURIOUSITY—LOVE • Discover an optimal balance between positive and negative thinking and to understand psychological phenomenon in its totality • Criticism of the field is that the new discipline may not be applicable to some people or cultures in spite of the claims of the universality of positive psychology • Researchers have re-examined the role of pessimism as an adaptive, and hence positive, approach to selected issues of problems—specifically defensive pessimism—a coping strategy that keeps disappointments and expectations in check—may be adaptive when needed to respond to negative outcomes Traditional Medicine: is a term that refers to medical practises, knowledge, and beliefs in cultures whose practises predate those of Western medicine 4 core principles: 1. A belief in a connection among the individual, Earth, and a life or energy force 2. A belief a person’s state of health reflects a balance or harmony of three connected elements (individual, earth, energy force) 3. A belief that treatment for a health problem involves the whole individual 4. A belief in the use of herbal remedies or other rituals (chants, acupuncture, bone setting…) • South Africa = Sangomas • Chinese Traditional Medicine—yin & yang, 5 elements, and Qi (chi) • Yin and Yang = all things function in relation to 2 forces, elements, or principles (harmony) • 5 Elements = metal, wood, water, fire, and earth—each is pair with a body organ and a seaon of the
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