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Psychology 2036 Final Exam Notes- Chapters & Key Quotes from Online Notes

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Psychology 2036A/B
Sarah Khan

Psychology 2036B Chapter 9 Cardiovascular Disease Opening story news reported dies from a heart attack Caught many by surprise because it was believed that his condition had been under control Measures taken by doctors and Russert did not prevent the very thing that they were trying to avoid a fatal heart attackCoronary artery disease a disease caused by plaque a composite made up of fat cholesterol calcium and other substances that builds up in the arteriesAsymptomatic CAD no warning signs of illnessStress test measures the electrical activity of the heart while the individual exercises THE HEART AND ITS FUNCTIONSStrong muscle that is the focal point of the bodys circulatory system Circulates blood throughout the body which carries oxygen and other nutrients needed by the other organs and systems to function properlyBlood also carries carbon dioxide waste for the lungs to expelHeart has two sides and a total of 4 chambers 2 per side 2 atria and 2 ventriclesHow it works blood enters on the right side through one of the two upper chambers the right side receives and transports used blood deoxygenated Blood enters through the right atrium right ventricle pulmonary arteries to make its way to the lungs Lungs reoxygenate the blood pumped from the lungs into the heart through the left pulmonary veinshearts left atrium The blood now with a fresh supply of oxygen passes through the aorta to provide oxygenated blood to the organsCapillaries vessels carrying blood to other organs connects arteries thin walls to allow oxygen and other nutrients in the blood to pass through3 Key Points about Cardiovascular Disease 1 plaque narrows the passageways of arteries and reduces volume of blood flowing to and from the heart 2 plaque hardens the vessels and reduces the flexibility of a normal artery 3 plaque buildup is caused by poor diet this is preventable Therefore its important to motivate people to adopt healthy eating habits 4 Types of Cardiovascular Disease linked to lifestyle choices coronary artery disease cardiac arrests cerebrovascular disease and hypertension CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE CADMost common type leading cause of heart attacks Condition in which the arteries that pump blood to and from the heart become partially or completely obstructedImpeded blood flow means less blood for the heart and other organsCan also damage heart tissues and produce chest pain shortness of breath heart attacks myocardial infarction 296Modified risk factors individuals can modify increase or decrease their risk in cardio disease by changing behaviours CARDIAC ARRESTCaused by ventricular fibrillation an abnormal heart rhythm that happens when the heart fails to pump blood to other organsRhythm determined by electrical impulses from sinus nodes cells in the right atrium that serves as a pacemakerNodes send electrical currents through heart synchronizing heart rate and pumping blood to other organs Interrupted signal cardiac arrestMore than 80 of cases cardiac arrest is accompanied by history of CADCardiac arrest and heart attack are not necessarily the same thingCardiac arrest makes someone unconscious and is fatal if heart is not jolted back to rhythmtime is important thoughTwo processes to restart heart 1CPR Cardiopulmonary resuscitation or 2 AED automated external defibrillators CPR stimulates heart and provides oxygenAED send an electric charge to the heart which mimics the electrical charge of the heart and restarts circulation process STROKECerebrovascular Disease affects vessels that carry blood and oxygen to the brain2 Types 1 Ischemic Stroke interruption of blood flow to the brain or 2 Hemorrhagic Stroke rupture of a blood vessel in the brain 298Hemorrhagic can be prompted by hypertension excessive force of blood pumoing through the blood vessels HYPERTENSIONHigh blood pressure HBP systolic pressure amount of pressure exterted when the atria and ventricles are contracting to force blood out of the hearts chamber and the diastolic pressure the amount of pressure exerted when the atria and ventricles relax and fill with blood are higher than normal blood pressure rangesNormal blood pressure systolic pressure of 120 or fewer millimeters of mercury and a diastolic pressure of 80 millimeters or fewer of mercury Hypertensive people will usually show signs of an enlarged heart harder for it to perform its basic functions the silent killerSymptoms are very non specific general and could include headaches heart palpitations sudden and unexplained nose bleeds and a general feeling of ill health p300
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