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Chapter Summaries for Midterm PSYCH(1).doc

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Psychology 2040A/B
Terry Biggs

CHAPTER SUMMARIES Chapter 1 • What is development? What are the major forces that drive development? Development: Systemic continuities and changes in the individual that occur between conception and death. (Systemic=orderly, patterned, and relatively induring; so mood swings and other transitory changes in our appearances, thoughts and behaviors are excluded). Developmentalists: Biologists, sociologists, anthropologists, educators, and even historians. It is any scholar (regardless of discipline) who seeks to understand the developmental process. Two important processes that underlie developmental change: Maturation & Learning Maturation: developmental changes in the body or behavior that result from the aging process rather than from leaning, injury, illness, or some other life experience. The human maturational biological program calls for us to become capable of walking and uttering our first meaningful words at about age 1, to reach sexual maturity between 11- 15, and then to age and die on a similar schedule. It is partly responsible for psychological changes such as our increasing ability to concentrate, solve problems, and understands another person’s thoughts or feelings. Learning: the process which our experiences produce relatively permanent changes in our feelings, thoughts, and behaviors. We often learn to feel, think and behave in new ways from our observations of and interactions with parents, teachers, and other important people in our lives, as well as from events that we experience. • The history of developmental psychology – the early philosophers and then Darwin, Hall, Freud [note that this is covered more thoroughly in Chapter 2]. Thomas Hobbes: “Original Sin” – Children are inherently selfish egoists who must be restrained by society. Parents must actively control their egoistic children. Jean Jacques Rousseau: “Innate Purity” – Children are born with an intuitive sense of what’s right and wrong that society often corrupts. Parents should give their children freedom to follow their inherently positive inclinations. John Locke: “Tabula Rasa” – Children have no inborn tendencies; they are neither inherently good nor inherently bad, and how they turn out depends on their worldly experiences. Favored disciplined child rearing to ensure that children would develop good habits and acquire few bad ones. Charles Darwin: “Baby Biography” – Observing the development of his own child and published this data in works known as the baby biographies. His curiosity about child development stemmed from his theory of evolution. He believed that young, untrained infants share many characteristics with their nonhuman ancestors. He viewed the baby biography as a way of answering questions about our evolutionary past. Baby biographies are difficult to compare, conclusions cannot be based on a single case, and many parents are biased when observing their own children. Stanley Hall: “Questionnaire” – Conducted the first large-scale scientific investigation of children. He is considered the founder of developmental psychology. He asked children questions about a range of topics, discovering that children’s understanding of the world grows rapidly during childhood and that logic of children is not very logical at all. Sigmund Freud: “Psychoanalytic Theory” – Freud formulated this theory from thousands of notes and observations he made while treating patients for various kinds of emotional disturbances. • The basics of the scientific method – theories, hypotheses, reliability, validity. Theory: is a set of concepts and propositions that describe and explain some aspect of experience. They help us to describe and explain various patterns of behavior. Hypothesis: Ability to predict future events by testing and collecting data. The information obtained when testing hypotheses provides information about the theory’s ability to explain new observations. Scientific Method: The use of objective (everyone who examines the data will come to the same conclusions) and replicable (every time the method is used, it results in the same data and conclusions) methods to gather data for the purpose of testing a theory or hypothesis. It dictates that, above all, investigators must be objective and must allow their data to decide the merits of their thinking. Today, researchers are fortunate in having many tried-and-true procedures they might use to measure behavior and to test their hypotheses about human development. But regardless of the techniques employed, scientifically useful measures must always display two important qualities: Reliability and Validity. Reliability: The extent to which a measuring instrument yields consistent results, both over time and across observers. Validity: The extent to which a measuring instrument accurately reflects what the researchers intended to measure. • Major methodologies (along with their strengths and shortcomings): interviews/questionnaires, naturalistic observation, structured observation, case studies, ethnography, psychophysical measures. Self-reports  Interviews and Questionnaires: A technique in which all participants are asked the same questions in precisely the same order so that the responses of different participants can be compared. + It is a quick way to gather information. A standardized format allows an investigator to make direct comparisons between data of other participants taking part in the questionnaire. - The data collected could be inaccurate or dishonest. The participant may not be able to understand the questions.  Clinical Methods: a type of interview in which a participant’s response to each successive question determines what the investigator will answer next. + Flexible and treats participants as unique individuals. The researcher can probe (ask multiple questions) to ensure that the participant understands the meaning of the questions being asked. - Conclusions may be unreliable since not all participants are treated alike (since the researcher probes, they will not ask the same questions for each participant). This research methodology can only be used with highly verbal participants. Observational Methodologies  Naturalistic Observation + Allows the researcher to study a persons behavior as it occurs in the natural environment. - The participant’s behavior may be influenced by the researchers presence. Eg. A child may not hit another child if they know they are being watched, but the second they are not being watched they may strike another child on the playground.  Structured Observation: Laboratory setting. The participant is exposed to a setting that might cue the behavior in question and then is surreptitiously observed – via a hidden camera or through a one-way-mirror. + It offers an environment that would give any child in the setting an opportunity to perform a target behavior. - Participants may not always respond in a laboratory setting as they would in everyday life.  Case Studies: A research method where the investigator gathers extensive information about the life of an individual and then tests developmental hypotheses by analyzing the events of the persons life history. + Very broad. Considers many sources of data when drawing conclusions about individual participants. - The type of data collected (from questionnaires, to interviews, to observations) often differs from case to case and may be inaccurate. Conclusions draw from individual cases are subjective and may not apply to other people.  Ethnography: The researcher lives within the cultural community that they are studying. + Provides a deeper description of cultural beliefs, values, and traditions that is possible during brief observations or interview studies. - Conclusions may be biased by the researchers values and viewpoints. Results cannot be generalized beyond the groups and settings that they were studied in.  Psychophysiological Methods: ECG – heart wave, and EEG – brain wave activity measures the relationship between physiological processes and aspects of children’s physical, social, or emotional behavior. + Useful for assessing thoughts and emotions of infants and toddlers who cannot verbally report them. - Cannot directly indicate what the participant’s sense or feel. Many other factors can produce a similar physiological response on these tests. • Correlational design: lack of causality, correlation coefficient. Correlation Design: A researcher gathers information to find out whether two or more variables of interest are meaningfully related. Eg. Children who watch violent television shows are more likely to become more violent than those children who do not watch them. No attempts are made to structure or manipulate the participant’s environment in any way. Correlational researchers take people as they find them – already ‘manipulated’ by natural life experiences – and try to determine whether variations in people’s life experiences are associated with differences in their behaviors or patterns of development. The Correlational Designs major limitation is that it cannot indicate that one thing causes another. For example. Violent television shows might now be the factor that makes children violent. Children may witness abuse in their family, which in turn causes them to watch violent television. Correlation Coefficient: A numerical index, ranging from -1.00 to +1.00, of the strength and direction of the relationship between two variables. A correlation of 0 means that the two variables being tested are not systematically related. If the correlation sign is “+” then that means that as one variable increases, the other variable also increases. Eg. Height and weight are positively correlated because as a child grows in height their weight also usually increases. If the correlation sign is “-“ it indicates an inverse relationship. As one variable increases, the other decreases. Eg. Among elementary students aggression and popularity are negatively correlated: Children who behave more aggressively tend to be less popular. • Experimental design: independent and dependent variables, confounding variables, control, random assignment. Experimental designs allow for a close assessment of the cause-and-effect relationship that exists between two variables. The researcher introduces some change in the participant’s environment and then measures the effect of that change on the participant’s behavior. Independent Variable: The part of the environment that an experimenter changes or manipulates in order to measure its impact of behavior. Eg. The independent variable would be a television show that the participants watch. Half of the participants would watch a violent show, and the other half would watch no violence. Dependant Variable: The part of the behavior that is measured in an experiment and assumed to be influenced by the independent variable. Eg. The children’s reaction to the television show would become the data. (Aggression would be the dependent variable). Confounding Variable: A factor other than the independent variable, that if not controlled by the experimenter, could explain any differences across treatment conditions in the participants performance on the dependant variable. Eg. A child’s pre-existing level of aggression may have determined their willingness to hurt another child and that the independent variable (the television show with violence in it) actually had no effect at all! Experimental Control: The researcher must make sure that all other confounding variables that could affect the dependant variable are controlled. This can be done by randomly assigning children to the experimental treatments = randomization/random assignment. Random Assignment: each research participant has an equal probability of being exposed to each experimental treatment (watching a violent show and watching a non-violent show). Assignment of the participants are chosen in an unbiased way such as “flip of the coin”. All of the confounding variables will have been randomly distributed within each treatment. Eg more aggressive children will be exposed to non-violent films and violent films…their aggression will then be compared against each other. • Research designs specific to studying development (along with their strengths and shortcomings): cross-sectional, longitudinal, sequential, microgenetic.  Cross-Sectional: People who differ in age are studied at the same pointing time. Participants at each age level are different people – they come from different cohorts. A Cohort is a group of people of the same age who are exposed to similar cultural environments and historical events as they are growing up. By comparing participants in the different age groups, researchers can often identify age related changes in whatever aspect of development they happen to be studying. + Inexpensive. Takes little time to conduct. Hints at developmental trends. The investigator can collect data from children of different ages over a short time. Eg. They do not have to wait three years for their 4-5 year olds to become 7-8 year olds to test their developmental hypotheses. - Provides no data on the development of individuals because each participant is observed at only one point in time. *** Cohort Effect: age-related differences among cohorts that is attributable to cultural/historical differences in cohorts’ growing-up experiences rather than true developmental change. Eg. Intelligence testing in younger and older cohorts. Older adults in cross-sectional studies had less schooling and therefore scored lower on intelligence tests than younger adult cohorts. Their test scores did not decline, they had simply always been lower than those of the younger adults with whom they were compared.  Longitudinal: The same participants are observed repeatedly over a period of time. It could be 6 months to a year or it may span an entire lifetime. Researchers may study one aspect of development such as intelligence, or they may study many. + Provides data on the development of one individual. Can reveal links between early experiences and later outcomes in life (Eg. Going through a traumatic experience such as a car accident and the effect it has on the child mentally in their adult years). Shows how people are alike and how they are different in they ways they change overtime. - Costly and time consuming. Practice Effects: Changes in the participant’s natural responses as a result of repeated testing over a lifetime. Selective Attrition: children may move away or become bored with participating, or may have parents that no longer want them to continue in the study. Cross-generational: changes may limit ones conclusions to the cohort studied (the fact that long-term changes in the environment may limit the conclusions of a longitudinal project to that generation of children who were growing up while the study was in progress).  Sequential: Combine the best features of the cross-sectional and longitudinal studies by selecting multiple participants of different ages (cohorts) and following these different cohorts over time. + Discriminates true developmental trends from cohort effects. Less costly and time consuming than the Longitudinal approach. - More costly and time consuming than Cross-Sectional.  Microgenetic Favored by many researchers. A research design where participants are studied intensively over a short period of time as their developmental changes occur. It attempts to specify how or why these changes occur. + Extensive observation of changes as they occur can reveal how and why changes occur. - Extensive experience given to stimulate change may be atypical and produce changes that may not persist over long periods. • Ethical considerations: informed consent, benefits-to-risks, confidentiality, protection from harm. Researchers are ethically bound to honor to protect their research participants from physical or psychological harm. A research must not conduct experiments that will cause physical or psychological damage, such as physical abuse, starvation, and isolation for long periods of time. Informed Consent: The right of the research participant to receive an explanation, in a language that they can understand, of all aspects of their research that may affect their willingness to participate. The informed consent can be from adults that are in charge of watching the children. Benefits-to-Risk: A comparison of the possible benefits of a study with the potential risks that participants may face. In Canada, universities, research foundations, and government agencies have set up a “human-participant review committee” to review and consider the potential risks and benefits of the proposed research, and to help ensure that all possible steps are taken to protect the welfare of those who may chose to participate in the project. Confidentiality: The right of participants to concealment of their identity with respect to the data that they provide towards a research. Protection from Harm: The right of the research participants to be protected from physical or psychological harm. Chapter 2 • The basics of the historical developmental theorists/theories: Freud, Erikson, Watson, Skinner, Bandura, Piaget, Vygotsky, Information Processing, Ethology, Bronfenbrenner. 1) Psychoanalytic Viewpoints: Sigmund Freud, Erik Erikson Sigmund Frued – Psychosexual Theory • Our personalities are shaped by our earlier life experiences. • A practicing neurologist who formulated his theory of human development from analyzing his emotionally disturbed patients’ life history. • He concluded that: we have basic sexual and aggressive instincts that must be served. He believed that the way parents managed these sexual aggressive urges in the first few years of their children’s life would play a major role in their personality. • Proposes that 3 components of the personality – id, ego, and superego – develop and gradually become integrated in a series of 5 developmental psychosexual stages. • He believed that as one sex instinct matured, its focus shifted from one part of the body to another, and that each shift brought on a new stage of psychosexual development. • 5 Stages: Oral – sex instinct is focused on the mouth. Eg. Sucking, biting Anal – voluntary urination and defecation Phallic – genital stimulation (interested in opposite sex parent) Latency – Traumas of philliac stage cause sexual conflicts to be repressed and sexual urges to be rechanneled into schoolwork and play. Genital – Puberty triggers an awakening of sexual urges. Erik Erikson - Psychosocial Theory • Differed from Freud in that he believed that children are active, curious explorers who seek to adapt to their environments, rather than passive slaves to biological urges who are molded by their parents. • Erikson’s emphasis is on cultural influences (not sexual urges like Frued). • He believed that people face 8 major crises or conflicts, which he labeled psychosocial stages during the course of their whole life. Each one of the 8 conflicts emerges at a specific time that is dictated by biological maturation and social demands. • Each crisis must be successfully resolved in order to prepare for a satisfactory resolution of the next life crisis. • The psychosocial theory does not end at adolescence like Freuds theory. • 8 Stages: Trust vs. Mistrust Autonomy vs. Shame and doubt Initiative vs. Guilt Industry vs. Inferiority Identity vs. Role Confusion Intimacy vs. Isolation Generativity vs. Stagnation Ego integrity vs. Despair 2) The Learning Viewpoint: John Watson, B.F. Skinner, Albert Bandura John Watson – Behaviorism • He believed he could take a dozen healthy infants and mould them into whatever he wanted them to be – a doctor, a lawyer, a beggar, etc. • Like John Locke (an early theorist in development) he believed that children were Tabula Rasa (blank slate), to be written on by experience. • Believed that how children turn out depends entirely on their environments and the ways in which their parents and other significant people in their lives treat them. These changes that occur vary from person to person. • Watson presented a white rat to a 9 month old whose initial reaction to the rat was positive. Two months later Watson attempted to instill a fear response. Every time the child went to reach for the rat, Watson would bank a steel rod with a hammer – it produced a fear response. • He believed parents were largely responsible for what their children would become. He cautioned parents that they should begin to train their children at birth. *** Young, unknowing children were viewed as passive recipients of environmental stimuli – they would become whatever parents, teachers, and other people of society groomed them to be B.F. Skinner – Operant Learning • Believed that humans repeat acts that lead to favorable outcomes and suppress those that lead to unfavorable outcome. • Used reinforces and punishers. • A rat that presses a bar and receives a food pellet is apt to perform that response again. The food pellet would be a reinforcer because it makes the response more probable in the future. • Believed that habits develop as a result of unique Operant Learning • Operant Learning: a form of learning in which voluntary acts become either more or less probable, depending on the consequences they produce. • Operant learning theory claims that development depends on external stimuli (reinforcers and punishers) rather than on internal forces such as instincts or biological maturation. Albert Bandura – Cognitive Social Learning • Believes humans are active information processors who are likely to think about the relationships between their behavior and its consequences. • He emphasized Observational Learning: Learning that results from observing the behavior of other people. Eg. A 2 year old may learn how to approach and pet the family dog because they watched their older brother do it. • Children learn both desirable and undesirable behaviors by observation. Eg. Watching a parent smoke or swear. • He showed children a video where an adult acted aggressively towards an inflatable Bobo Doll, hitting it with a mallet while shouting “sockeroo”, throwing rubber balls while shouting “bang bang!”, etc. The children who saw the model rewarded and the model who received no consequences for hitting the doll preformed more aggressive acts towards the same doll when left alone in the room with it. ***Children are active, thinking beings who contribute in many ways to their own development. Observational Learning for example, requires the child to actively attend to, encode, and retain the behaviors displayed by social models. And children are fee to choose the models to whom they will attend; so therefore, they have some say about what they will learn from others. • Cognitive learning theorists believe that child development is best described as a continuous or Reciprocal Interaction between children and their environments. 3) The Cognitive-Developmental Viewpoint: Jean Piaget, Lev Vygotsky Jean Piaget – Cognitive Development (Intelligence and Intellectual Growth) • Believed that children were naturally curious explorers who are constantly trying to make sense of their surrounding. • Scheme is an organized pattern of thought or action that a child constructs to makes sense of some aspect of their experience. Eg. Things that move are alive; the sun must be alive because it moves • Four Stages of Cognitive Development: Sensorimotor – infants use sensory and motor capabilities to explore and gain a better understanding of the environment. Preoperational – Children use symbolism (images and language) to represent and understand various aspects of the environment. They believe that everyone sees the world as they do Concrete Operations – Children acquire and use cognitive operations (mental activities that are components of logical thought) Formal Operations – Cognitive operations are reorganized in a way that allows them to operate on operations (think about thinking) Lev Vygotsky – Sociocultural Theory • Children acquire their cultures values, beliefs, and problem-solving strategies through collaborative dialogues with more knowledgeable people of society. • A child learns first through social interactions with others, and only gradually does learning come under the childs control. • Development varies across cultures depending on their specific experiences 4) Information-Processing Viewpoint: • The human mind is like a computer into which information flows, or is operated on, and is converted to output. • Cognitive development is age-related changes that occur in the mind’s “harware” (brain and nervous system) and “software” (attention, perception, memory, problem solving). • Maturation of the brain and nervous system enables children and adolescence to process information faster. As a result, developing children become better at sustaining attention, recognizing and storing task-relevant information. • Unlike Piaget, they believed that cognitive development was a continuous process and not stagelike like Piaget suggested. Ethological and Evolutionary Viewpoints: • All animal species are born with a number of “biologically programmed” behaviors that are products of evolution, and adaptive in that they contribute to survival. • Bowlby: believed that children display a variety of preprogrammed behaviors, such as crying. Crying attracts the attention of caregivers to ensure the infant’s basic needs are met (feeding, changing, safety). Ecological Systems Viewpoint: Urie Bronfenbrenner • The developing person is embedded in a series of environmental systems that interact with one another and with the person to influence development. • The developing person is like a set of “Russian dolls” – they are at the center of and embedded in several environmental systems ranging from immediate settings such as the family to more remote context such as the broader culture. Each of these systems are thought to interact wih the others and with the individual to influence development in important ways. Microsystem: The inner most environmental layer. The activities and interactions that occur in the persons immediate surroundings. Eg. Family, playmates Each person in the microsystem influences and are influenced by each other. Eg. A temperamental baby can cause friction between her two parents and even damage their marital relationship. Mesosystem: Second environmental Layer. Homes, schools, and peer groups. Development is likely to be optimized by strong links between Microsystems. Eg. Children who have established secure relationships with parents are especially incline to be accepted by peers and have supportive friendships during childhood. If there are nonsupportive links between the Microsystems, there could be trouble. Eg. When a peer groups devalue academic learning, they often undermine an adolescent scholastic performance, despite the best efforts of the parents/teachers. Exosystem: Social systems that children and adolscents do not directly experience but that may nonetheless influence their development. Eg. Parents work environments. Childrens emotional relationships at home may be influence by whether or not their parents enjoy their work. Macrosystem: Cultural or subcultural context in which development occurs. Eg. How children should be treated, what they should be taught, and the goals they should strive for. Chronosystem: Emphasizes that changes in the child or in any of the ecological contexts (environment) of development can affect the direction that development is likely to take. • Major issues in human development: nature/nurture, active/passive, continuity/discontinuity. These 3 major issues are what developmental theories often disagree upon  Nature/Nurture: Many contemporary researchers believe that the contributions of both nature and nurture depend on the area of development in question. They stress that all complex human attributes, such as intelligence, temperament, and personality, are the end products of a long and involved interplay between biological predispositions and environmental forces. Their advice to us is to think less about Nature Versus Nurture and more about how these two sets interact with each other to produce developmental changes.  Active/Passive Are children more active creatures who largely determine how agents (people) of society treat them? Or are they passive souls who society shapes? This is a debate among developmental theorists about whether children are active contributors to their own development or, if they are passive recipients of environmental influence.  Continuity/Discontinuity Continuity: Theorists view development as a process that occurs gradually and continuously. This would be plotted on a graph as a gradual curve Discontinuity: Theorists view development as a series of abrupt changes, each which elevates the child to a new and presumably more advanced level of functioning. These levels or “stages” are represented on a graph as steps. The second aspect of continuity/discontinuity centers on developmental changes as quantitative or qualitative in nature. Quantitative changes: changes in degree or amount. Eg. Children grow taller and run a little faster with each passing year. They also acquire more knowledge about the world around them. Qualitative changes: changes in the form or kind. Changes that make the individual different in some way than he or she was earlier. Eg. The transformation of a tadpole into a frog. Similarly, an infant who lacks language may be qualitatively different from a preschooler who speaks well, and an adolescent who is sexually mature may be fundamentally different from a classmate who has yet to reach puberty. Chapter 3 • Genetic material: genes, chromosomes, DNA. Phenotype: the way a person’s genotype is expressed in observable or measureable characteristics Alleles: forms of a gene that can appear at a particular site on a chromosome. Genes: Chemical segments on chromosomes. Basic unit of heredity that works to build a single protein. Hereditary blueprints for development that are passed down from generation to generation. Chromosomes: 46 threadlike bodies in the cell nucleus. Contains thousands of genes DNA: “double helix” molecule that resembles a twisted ladder and provides a chemical basis for development. • How cells divide: mitosis, meiosis. Mitosis: • Body cell duplicates its chromosomes and then divides into two genetically identical daughter cells. • Results in two new cells each which have 23 pairs of chromosomes (46 chromosomes in total) Meiosis: • Sex cells. • Results in gametes containing 23 single chromosomes. • At the time of conception a sperm with 23 chromosomes will unite with an ovum with 23 chromosomes, producing a zygote with a full 46 Chromosomes. • Difference between identical and fraternal twins. Identical Twins: • Monozygotic • Two people share a genotype • A zygote will split into separate but identical cells which then becomes two individuals • Developed from a single zygote • Have identical genes Fraternal Twins: • Dizygotic • When a mother releases two ova at the same time and each is fertilized by a different sperm. • Do not have identical genes • X vs. Y chromosomes. 22 (autosomes: 22 pairs of human chromosomes that are identical in both malerdand females) of the 23 pairs of human chromosomes. Sex is determined by the 23 pair and the fathers sperm. “X” • female “Y” • Male • Function of genes: what do they actually do?, how do they interact with environmental influences? Genes call for the production of amino acids, which form enzymes and other proteins that are necessary for the formation and functioning of new cells. For example, they regulate the production of melanin in the e
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