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Child development Test 2.docx

11 Pages

Course Code
Psychology 2040A/B
Anthony Skelton

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Child development Test 2 Cognitive development Piaget’s theory – information processing approach - 4 stages of intellectual growth – qualitative changes o Invariant sequence o Nurture – no innate knowledge o Active role Schemes - Cognitive structures – schemes - Guide interpretation and adaptation - 3 types o Behavioural (0-2) o Symbolic (2-7) o Operational (7+) Basics - Goal – to reach equilibrium - 2 main functions that guide cognitive development o Assimilation  Process by which people translate incoming information into a form that fits concepts they already understand o Accommodation  Process by which people adapt current knowledge structures in response to new experiences Stage 1 – sensorimotor stage - Birth to 2 years o Intelligence – sensory and motor abilities o Limited to the present (children live in here and now) o Children use abilities to perceive and explore the world around them , gaining information about the objects and people in it and constructing forms of fundamental concepts such as time, space, and causality - Object permanence o (4-8 months) child searches when object is partially concealed o (8-12) child searches when object completely concealed  But (a not b error) • The tendency to reach for a hidden object where it was last found rather than in the new location where it was last hidden o (12-18) child searches where object was last seen , they cannot understand non- seen displacements o (18-24) child is capable of mental representations for non-seen displacements - Problem solving o (1-4) primary circular reactions  Infants learn to coordinate sensations. Primary reaction is when the infant tries to reproduce an event that happened by accident example sucking thumb o (4-8) secondary circular reactions  Become aware of things beyond their body and become more object oriented  Example shaking a rattle for sake of satisfaction o (8-12) coordination of secondary circular reactions  Start to show intention  Example using a stick to reach something o (12-18)tertiary circular reactions  Explore possibilities of objects o (18-24) inner experimentation  Attains symbolic problem solving Stage 2 – preoperational stage - 2-7 years - Children become able to represent their experiences in language, mental imagery and symbolic thought - Hall mark – use of words and symbols - Inability to perform mental operations o Theme centration Divided into two sub stages - 2 to 4 years o Symbolic functioning  Pretend play  Language - Pre-conceptual period o Egocentrism  Tendency to perceive the world solely form one’s own point of view  3 mountains task • When asked to choose the picture that shows what the doll sitting in the seat across the table would see, most children below the age of 6 choose the picture showing how the scene looks to them , illustrating their difficulty in separating their own perspective from that of others o Centration  Tendency to focus on a single, perceptually striking feature of an object or event  Transductive reasoning • Transportation or transformation of something from one form to another • Can lead to correct or accurate conclusions  Appearance/reality distinction • Understanding that the contents of the mind represent rather than reproduce the contents of the world involves understanding that thoughts of a thing may have characteristics than the thing itself • 3 year olds lack ability to maintain two or more representations of a particular objects - Intuitive period o 4-7 years o Children have formed a more complete understanding of concepts and have mostly stopped transductive reasoning. Thinking becomes more logical although it is structured more about the perception than logic o Shows concentration  The realization that certain quantitative attributes of objects remain unchanged unless something is added or taking away from them o Difficulties with whole/part relations o Difficulties with conservation  Number mass, liquid, volume o Horizontal decalage  Similar abilities do not appear at the same time within a stage of development o To conserve – needs decentration and reversibility o Example pouring two equal amounts of liquid in two cups evenly , but one cup is larger and skinnier then the other, children would say that the larger and skinner cup holds the most liquid Stage 3 – concrete operations stage - 7-11 years - Children become able to reason logically about concrete objects and events - Decreased centration - Reasoning is limited to concrete situations not hypothetical - Difficulty generating systematic experiments to test beliefs Stage 4 – formal operations stage - 12+ - People become able to think about abstractions and hypothetical situations - Abstract concepts - Reasoning is based on ideas o Hypothetic-deductive reasoning – problem solves like a scientist - Adolescent egocentrism o Imaginary audience o Personal fable - Example pendulum , children can’t differ between two different weights and sizes of string of the pendulum when it swings Core-knowledge - Approaches that emphasize the sophistication of infants and young children’s thinking in areas that have been important throughout human evolutionary history Sociocultural theories - Approaches that emphasize that other people and the surrounding culture contribute to children’s development Dynamic systems theory - A class of theories that focus on how change occurs over time in complex systems Information processing approach - Structure and
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