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16 Pages

Course Code
Psychology 2040A/B
Michael G Mac Donald

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Chapter 14PersonalityPersonalitythe distinctive and relatively enduring ways of thinking feeling and acting that characterize a persons responses to life situationsGuided by psychodynamic humanistic biological behavioral cognitive and sociocultural perspectives Diversity arises from the fact that the theorists have their own personalities that influence how they perceive and understand themselves and their worldAspects of personality have three characteristicsoSeen as components of identity that distinguish that person from other peopleoBehaviours viewed as being caused primarily by internal rather than environmental factorsoBehaviours seem to fit together in a meaningful fashion suggesting an inner personality that guides and directs behaviourTheory provides comprehensive framework within which known facts can be incorporated allows us to predict future events with some precision and stimulates the discovery of new knowledge The Psychodynamic PerspectiveStudied hysteria with Charcot began to experiment using techniques of hypnosis free association and dream analysisFreuds Psychoanalytic TheoryoConsidered personality to be an energy system of the dayoPsychic energygenerated by instinctual drives this energy powers the mind and constantly presses for either direct or indirect releaseBuildup of sexual energy can be discharged directly through sexual activity or indirectly through fantasies or artistic depictionsoMental events are dividedConsciousevents that we are presently aware ofPreconsciousmemories thoughts feelings images that we are unaware of at the moment but can be recalledUnconsciousdynamic realm of wishes feelings and impulses that lie beyond our awarenessoPersonality divided into three separate but interacting structuresIdprimitive and unconscious part of the personality that contains the instincts only thing present at birth and the source of all psychic energyOperates according to the pleasure principle seeks immediate gratification or release regardless of rational considerations or realityEgoexecutive of personality that is partly conscious between impulses of id prohibitions of superego and dictates of reality interacts with environment and outside worldOperates according to reality principle tests reality to decide when the id can safely discharge impulsesSuperegomoral arm of personality that internalizes standards and values of society 4yrs5 identification with his or her parents right and wrong rewards and punishments how they self controlRewards compliance with pride and noncompliance with guilt executive of the personalityEgodelay gratification until safe and appropriate superegoblock permanently moral over realityoId and superego are formed when child is young ego develops lateroIceberg analogyid is below the water unconscious while ego and superego are mostly above water consciousEgo is mostly above water while superego has portions both above and underoUnconscious conflictinteraction of id ego and superego results in constant struggle causing anxietyReality anxietyegos fear of real world threatsNeurotic anxietyegos fear of ids desiresMoral anxietyegos fear of guilt from superegooDefense mechanismsunconscious processes by which the ego prevents the expression of anxietyarousing impulses and try to deny or distort reality Realiance on defense mechanisms primary cause of dysfunctional behaviour1Repressionego uses some of its energy to prevent anxietyarousing memories from entering consciousnessdreams slips of the toungeSublimination displacementcompletely masking the sinister underlying impulses through other forms art sports etcRationalizationurge reinterpreted in acceptable termsProjectionown urges seen in others I hate you becomes You hate meIsolationmemories allowed back into consciousness without motives or emotionsRegressionmentally returning to an earlier safer stateConversionconflict converted into physical symptom developing blindness so as not to see an anxietyarousing situationoPsychosexual stagesstages of development in which psychic energy is focused on certain body parts called the erogenous zonesoDream of suppressed day content compared to non suppressed day contentoFixation a state of arrested psychosexual development in which instincts are focused on a particular psychic themeOral 02 weaning Anal 23 toilet training Phallic 46 resolving Oedipus complex Latency7puberty developing social relationships Genital puberty developing social and sexual relationshipsDeprivation or overindulgences in a stage can result in fixation in which instincts are focused on a particular themeOedipus complexthe male child experiences erotic feelings toward his mother and views his father as a rival females complex referred to as Electra complexEvaluating Psychoanalytic Theorycant be tested too much detailoNeoanyalstspsychoanalysts who disagreed with certain aspects of freuds thinking and developed their own theoriesoAlfred Adler insisted that humans are social beings who are motivated by social interest and culture the desire to advance the welfare of others striving for superiority drives people to compensate for real or imagined defects in themselves and strive to be ever more competent in life oCarl Jung developed analytic psychologyHumans not only posses a personal unconscious of life experiences but a collective unconscious of memories accumulated throughout the history of humanityMemories are represented by archetypes inherited tendencies to interpret experience in certain ways godoObject relationsthe images or mental representations that people form of themselves and other people as a result of early experience with caregivers self fulfilling prophesies caregiver act a certain way expect others to act the same Attachment theory is related to object relations theory secure avoidant anxiousambivalentoCriticism stressed infancy sexuality too much emphasis on events of childhood as determinants of adult personalityThe Humanistic PerspectiveHumanists embrace a positive view that affirm the inherent dignity and goodness of the human sprit and emphasizes the conscious role in experience as well as an individuals creative potentialSelfactualizationthe total realization of ones human potentialCarl Rogerss Self TheoryoNot a reaction to unconscious Freud but a response to our immediate conscious experience of self and environment forces that direct behaviour are within us and that when tey are not disotreted or blocked by our environment they can be trusted to direct us toward self actualizationoSelfan organized consistent set of perceptions of and beliefs about oneselfMust have selfconsistency absence of conflict among selfperceptions and congruency consistency between selfperceptions and experiences to maintain selfconceptExperiences that are inconsistent with selfconcept evokes threat and anxietyproblems in livingTo preserve their selfimages people not only interpret situations in a self congruent ways but they also behave in ways that will lead others to behave in accord with their self concepts More inflexible self concepts the less open they will be to their experience and the more maladjusted they will become Incongruence between self and experience may be forceful enough to cause defenses to collapse resulting in extreme anxiety and a loss of the selfconcept 2
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