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Psychology 2042A/B
Jeff St.Pierre

Ch1: INTRODUCTION TO NORMAL AND ABNORMAL BEHAVIOUR IN CHILDREN & ADOLESCENCE - Advance organizers – shows that reading before lets you remember and learn better - CPRI = tertiary center; not a front line service - Scientific method – goal is to avoid unsubstantiated inferences based on uncontrolled observations - Meta-analysis – summary of all research Research studies in abnormal child psychology seek to address: - Defining what constitutes normal and abnormal behaviour - Identifying the causes and correlates of abnormal behaviour - Making predictions - Developing and evaluating methods for treatment/prevention Features that distinguish most child and adolescent disorders: - Not clear whose problem it is - Failure to show expected developmental progress o Promote skill development rather than seeing what’s ab/normal - Many problems are not entirely abnormal - Interventions = promote further development rather than restore previous lvl of function Historical Views and Breakthroughs - Ancient Greek & Rome: physical/mental handicap = economic burden=abandoned/death - Prior to 18 century: child mental health = ignored th - End of 18 century: Church influence = child mental health = devil/personality problem Emergence of Social Conscience - Western society: John Locke = children should be raised with thought & care th - 19 century: Jean Marc Itard = first documented work with child (Victor/wolf boy) o Proved child with sever impairments could improve through appropriate training - Leta H.: mental children = suffering from emotional & behavioural problems b/c of adults o Mental Retardation = Imbeciles o Mental Disorders = Lunatics - Ultimate thinking: basic protection that the vulnerable deserve came from the United Nations Declaration of the Rights of the Child - Moral Insanity = non-intellectual form of abnormal child behaviour 1. Advances in medicine, physiology, and neurology  Moral insanity replaced by organic disease model 2. Philosophies of Locke & etc  Children need moral guidance and support Early Biological Attributions th - 19 century: illness & disease & mental illness = biological problem o Focused on cause within individual o Prevent mental illness by raising standards of care o Biological disease model = limited intervention to severe disorders - Later: believed in prevention through eugenics (sterilization) and segregation (institutionalization) Early Psychological Attributions - Early 20 century: recognition of psychological influences o Concern that mental health needs could backfire = neglect of severe disorders - Psychoanalytic Theory: o Sigmund Freud: believed experiences play necessary role in psychopathology  Gave meaning to mental disorder by linking it to childhood experiences  Incorporated developmental concepts into an understanding of psychopathology o Emphasized personality and mental health outcomes had multiple roots rather than a specific cause (i.e disease model) o Outcomes depended on the interaction of developmental and situational processes that change over time o Nosologies: efforts to classify psychiatric disorders into descriptive categories  Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-IV-TR)  Find common denominator that describe why a disorder rather than development of the individual - Behaviorism: o Pavlov’s experimental research that established the foundation for classical conditioning  Treat abnormal behavior through conditioning o John Watson (father of behaviorism) : conditioned emotional responses (eliminate fear)  Theory of emotions Evolving Forms of Treatment - Infants raised without adult physical contact & stimulation = physical and emotional problems - Behavior therapy: focused on severe mental disorders o Psychoanalytic practices were seen as inappropriate and ineffective Progressive Legislation - IDEA: Individuals with Disabilities Education Act o Mandates free and appropriate public education for any child with special needs in the least restrictive environment o Must be assessed with culturally appropriate tests o Individualized education program (IEP) - United Nations General Assembly : protect rights of persons with disabilities around the world - Paradigm shift in attitudes toward and treatment of people with disabilities What Is Abnormal Behaviour In Children And Adolescence? Defining Psychological Disorders - Psychological disorder: pattern of behavioral, cognitive, emotional or physical symptoms o Associated with:  Some degree of distress  Some degree of disability  Increased risk of further suffering/harm o Excludes expected/appropriate circumstances defined by one’s cultural background - Labels Describe Behavior, Not People: o Stigma: cluster of negative attitudes/beliefs that motivate fear/rejection/avoidance/discrimination with respect to people with mental illnesses  Important
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