6 Pages
Unlock Document

Western University
Psychology 2042A/B
Jeff St.Pierre

CH2: THEORIES & CAUSES Theoretical Foundations - Theory: language of science that allows us to assemble and communicate existing knowledge more comprehensively - Etiology: study of causes of childhood disorders o Multiple, interactive causes not one-dimensional models Underlying Assumptions - Abnormal Development Is Multiply Determined o Multiply determined: look beyond the child's current symptoms and consider developmental pathways and interacting events that over time contribute to the expression of a disorder - Child and Environment Are Interdependent o Child and environment are interdependent: influence each other - Transactional view: dynamic interaction of child and environment o Both child and environment = active contributors to adaptive and maladaptive behaviour o cannot separate one from the other - Abnormal Development Involves Continuities and Discontinuities o Continuity: developmental changes are gradual and quantitative, future patterns can be predicted from earlier patterns  Early onset & persistent conduct disorders o Discontinuity: developmental changes are abrupt and qualitative, future unpredictable  eating disorders - Changes, Typical and Atypical o Guidelines for typical order of development = helpful, but age = arbitrary Piaget’s Children: watched own children - Organization: o Arranging information into structures he called schemes (how we understand the world that allow us to organize info) - Adaptation: o In adjusting to our environment we can: o Assimilate (fit into scheme) or – i.e dog hair on different animal = fur o Accommodate (alter scheme) – tables all have 4 legs, but now 6 legs.. so you change schema of table - Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development: Piaget is a stage theorist o Sensorimotor Stage: uses all senses to experience world o Pre-operational Stage: knows you’re behind couch not disappeared - SYMBOLICALLY o Concrete Operational Stage: learning rules such as conservation – more water in taller tube, even tho same amount of water o Formal Operational Stage: thinking abstractly I.e future An Integrative Approach - No single theoretical orientation orientation can explain various behaviours/disorders Developmental Considerations - Adaptational failure: failure to master/progress in accomplishing developmental milestones o psychological disorders differ in some aspect of normal development Organization of Development - Organization of development: early patterns of adaption evolve with structure over time and transform into higher-order functions such as speech and language o view = dynamic process of continual change and transformation - Sensitive periods: windows of time during which enviro influences development o Development = hierarchical manner Developmental Psychopathology Perspective - Developmental psychopathology: approach to describing and studying disorders of childhood, adolescence and beyond in a manner that emphasizes the importance of developmental processes and tasks o Uses abnormal development to inform normal development & vice versa o Provides useful framework for organizing the study of abnormal psych around physical, cognitive, social-emotional & educational development - Developmental cascades: process by which a child’s previous interactions and experiences may spread across other systems and alter his/her course of development (chain reaction) Biological Perspectives - Genetic and neurobiological factors as underlying cases of psychological disorders o Depends on environmental factors that serve to direct and reroute ongoing brain processes - Embryonic development generates an initial over-abundance of neurons 1. Cells = undifferentiated 2. Reach destinations  become neurons with axons that carry electrical signals a. AKA axonal connection/synapses i. Form brain’s circuits and lay the foundation for further growth and differentiations o Genes determine which axons travel, chemicals cues tell them direction to destinations th - 5 month: most axons reached destination, but more axons than target cells can accommodate o Early childhood: synapses multiply  selective pruning reduces number of connections  Brain constantly redefined to meet the demands and requirements of world Neural Plasticity and the Role of Experience - Neural plasticity: aka malleability, brains’ anatomoical differentiations is use-dependent o Nature = basic processes, Nurture=experienced to select most adaptive network of connections - Primitive areas of brain mature first: first 3yrs of life (brain areas that govern basic sensory & motor skills) o These perceptual centers & instinctive centers (limbic system) are strongly affected by early childhood experiences - Prefrontal cortex (governs planning and decision making) & cerebellum (motor skills) not rewired until a person is 5-7yrs - Major restricting of brain: 9-11yrs (pubertal development) & adolescence Genetic Contributions - Genome established at conception (20,000 to 25,000 genes) - The Nature of Genes o Gene = stretch of DNA, does not produce behaviour, but protein  Proteins = produce tendencies to respond to the environment in certain ways  Genes = influence how we respond to the environment & environment influences our genes o Gene-environment interaction (GxE): complex interplay of nature and nurture to account for genetic and environmental influences and their timing o Epigenetic mechanics: involve changes in gene activity resulting from a variety of environmental factors (i.e toxins, stress) (curling and uncurling of gene)  Environment can turn genes on/off (activate = lick your pup)  Curled = less likely to read - Behavioural Genetics: o Behavioural genetics: branch of genetics that investigates possible connections between a genetic predisposition and observed behaviour  Twin studies - Molecular Genetics: o Molecular genetics: variations in DNA sequences and variations in a particular trait/s  Variations in genetics thought to cause variations in traits  Most abnormal child behaviour = polygenic: number of susceptibility genes that interact with one an
More Less

Related notes for Psychology 2042A/B

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.