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Final 2070 Exam Chapter 8.docx

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Western University
Psychology 2070A/B
James M Olson

Final 2070 Exam Chapter 8 11/2/2012 3:43:00 PM Conformity, Compliance, and obedience refer to changes in behavior caused by other people Conformity- most GENERAL concept, refers to any change in behavior caused by another person or group (e.g., spectator might boo at the referee because other fans are booing)  conformity is limited to changes in BEHAVIOR caused by other people, it does not effect internal concepts like attitudes or beliefs Encompasses both COMPLIANCE and OBEDIENCE Compliance- refers to a change in behavior that is REQUESTED by another person or group asked by him or her to do (it was possible to refuse or decline) Obedience- refers to change in behavior that is ORDERED by another person or group commanded to do (failing to obey was not presented as an option) E.g., a child being told to clean their room most of follow the orders of police, government officials, higher-ranking military officers, the boss, and most people who wear a uniform or hold a position of authority. Why do we conform? Two reasons: Informational Influence- when people are influenced by others because of a desire to be correct and to obtain valid information when people rely on other for a source of information (E.g., young driver listening to suggestion of their instructor) Most likely to happen when task is ambiguous Normative Influence- occurs when people are influenced by other to gain rewards or to avoid punishment (they don’t have to think that others judgments or behaviors are correct) simply to be liked or to avoid conflict (e.g., driving 100km/h even though we want to go faster to avoid punishment) Informational and normative influence can occur at the same time E.g., a worker may ask advice from a supervisor to FIRSTLY to get information and ALSO to be rewarded for showing such respect We often want to please other people (normative) whose judgments we seek (informational) Sherif’s Autokinetic Effect Studies -addressed Social Norms which are rules or guidelines about what behaviors are proper or improper formal – laws, contracts (drinking on the right side of the road in CANADA, different in other countries) informal- customs, traditions (business attire is suit and tie, different in other business sectors like the fashion sector in MONTREAL) reward for following norms is social acceptance or approval punishment for breaking a norm is rejection or disapproval Autokinetic Effect- in a darkened room, a stationary point of light will appear to move periodically (but it doesn’t really) -asked to report how far the light appeared to move (some reported from 1- 25cm) -when asked to report answers out loud in groups, participants judgments began to converge with the other participants (and eventually confederates) THE GROUP NORM CARRIED ON AFTER participants were separated these judgments were ambiguous (no right answer) Multigenerational norms -SHERIF also showed that groups norms can spontaneously be established in the lab (norms like tipping the waiter) -study started with 4 male high school students, 3 of which were confederates each generation added a new naïve participant th after the 11 generation, responses were beginning to drift from initial group norm of 30cm but not far. Norms persist long after their instigators are gone Asch Length Judgment Studies  discrimination of length lines, task was to compare and match the standard line in length. The answer was to be said out loud in public the judgment was not ambiguous at all 7 confederates and 1 naïve participant 12 trails done 23% provided the correct answer and went against the group on all trials remaining 77% went along with the group at least once, 45% went from 1-6 trails and 32% went along for 7-12 trials Crutchfield Apparatus- machine that consists of an electric panel with several rows of lights, it allows the efficient study of conformity by simulating the responses of numerous hypothetical participants (thus each participant believes that he or she will learn about the responses of other and that his or her own responses will be publicly known) Based on the fact that being confronted by seven other people who disagree with your judgment in a face-to-face setting can create powerful social influence, wanted to reduce that also, Asch’s model was expensive and inefficient to run barely any difference from Asch’s experiment employed a variety of other tasks, involving perceptual judgments, attitudes and opinions, and personal preferences only exception was that it had little to no effect on expressing personal preferences (when asked which of two drawings was preferred) Nature of the task -the amount of conformity for each task depended on the features of the judgment task Ambiguity conformity more likely when tasks are ambiguous (no solution) (study suggested 79% of participants went along with the wrong answer) Difficulty- may either increase conformity (because people are less certain of their answers) or may reduce conformity (to think its okay to differ responses when task is hard) IT WAS OBVIOUS that judgments based on memory were affected by the difficulty (lines were presented, then the lines were removed) Also provided that on ambiguous or difficulty tasks, people exert both INFORMATIONAL and NORMATIVE influence, whereas in Asch’s studies which were plain and simple, people only exerted normative influence Individual Differences -not everyone conforms those who are independent are somewhat higher in their motivation to achieve, and in their leadership ability than those who conform (also tend to be less concerned about obtaining the approval of others) individuals with high self-esteem are less likely to conform than individuals with low self-esteem (especially when self-esteem was intrinsic honesty, generosity) Age differences have also found that conformity creeps up to grade 9 (peaks) and then declines up to the university years (probably because grade 9 is the time when adolescents are most concerned about their self- esteem) between the ages of 18-85, there is a general tendency for conformity to decrease as age increases Effects of group size Asch- found that conformity did increase as the size of the group from 1-3, another study showed that groups can go up to 5 before the lose their conformity (4 and 5 being the cutoffs) -no studies have been done on groups of 25, 100, or even higher. (but cults and etc. show pretty promising results) How to make conformity disappear 2 methods 1. instead of making people announce their judgments out loud, make them write them down, even with confederates still announcing their answers out loud) (dramatic change in conformity) -more reduction in conformity when judgments were anonymous rather than face-to-face when facing the majority 2. having someone answer the question with the correct answer (just one confederate saying the correct answer eliminated any yielding to the majority) Culture differences -conformity was higher in collectivist than in individualist countries. (in fact, culture predicted conformity even more strongly than any other influential factor BUT people do vary Gender Difference Women conform SLIGHTLY more than men -maybe women are unconsciously biased toward finding greater independence than man -maybe the topics in conformity studies have been “masculine” with the result that women were less confident in their judgment than men, and therefore more susceptible to social influence -maybe women are more concerned about harmony in social relationships than are men, making them less likely to disagree with others -When responses are PRIVATE, women DO NOT conform more than men, only when they are made public do women conform more often Compliance- direct requests (requester typically implies that we can refuse if we want to) -signing petitions, lending money, lending people notes Foot-in-the-door technique- if you can get someone to agree to a small request, then he or she is more likely to also agree to a much larger, related request *most common compliance technique -door-to-door technique to get people to put up “drive carefully” signs (signs were big and obnoxious) only 16% agreed but when they were first asked to participate by signing a petition or smaller request and then two weeks later to put up the sign again, 55% agreed. Why? Two reasons: 1. Self-Perception Processes- people sometimes infer their internal states, such as attitudes and emotions, from their behavior and the situation in which the behavior occurred -when people agree to an initial small request they label themselves as “helpful”, and since they are helpful people they will continue helping this cause. They would not have labeled themselves as helpful if the small request was never introduced 2. Consistency Processes- people want to BE and APPEAR consistent to others and are embarrassed by public inconsistencies -there is a desire for consistency (dissonance theory states that people want their attitudes and behaviors to be consistent with one another and are distressed by inconsistencies) individual differences include the Preference for Consistency (PFC) scales. -people who score high on this scale with statements such as “I want to be described by other as a stable, predictable person) -people who score high exhibit stronger dissonance effects and are more susceptible to the technique Door-in-the-face technique- making a very LARGE request- one that is sure to be turned down. Once denied, the request is then followed by a smaller request, one to which people will comply with -Study asking if students would be willing to accompany a group of juvenile delinquents for 2 hours to the zoo, 16% said no. Other students were asked if they would be counselors for 2 years for these delinquents, NOBODY COMPLIED, but then when asked to accompany these delinquents for 2 hours, 50% of the students complied why? Norm of reciprocity- the principle that we should give back in return any favors that are done for us (e.g., if someone invites us to dinner or lends us money, we feel obligated to return the favor. Another example of receiving a birthday gift from someone and thinking “oops. I didn’t give them a gift for their birthday” is the norm of reciprocity” -when someone presents a second, smaller and more favorable request following the refusal of a larger request the second request may be seen as a concession on his or their part (a compromise). -the request must be large enough that most people will decline it, but can’t be outrageously illegitimate -request must also be relatively close in time to the declined request (long delay eliminates the perception that the two requests are connected) Free-Gift Technique- more straightforward norm of reciprocity, giving a small gift to someone or doing a small favor for someone will make him or her feel indebted charities, which often mail small unsolicited gifts to potential donors, such as address labels, greeting cards, or calendars -recipients often feel enough pressure to reciprocate that they make a donation they would not have made if the gift had not been received. -study done where a participant was paired with a confederate during a study. In one group the confederate went to get a soda but also came back with an extra one for the participant, in the other group the confederate left for the same amount of time but came back with just a soda for himself. Both confederates at the end of the session asked the participants to buy raffle tickets, the student in the favorable condition bought nearly twice a many raffle tickets Low-Ball Technique- involves offering something at a given price and then raising the price after the individual agrees to the purchase -study where university students were called on the telephone to be scheduled for participation in a psychology experiment. In the control group, the group was told over the phone that the study would be conducted at 7am, only 31% made the appointment and 24% showed up. In the group that wasn’t told until after the person committed to the study, 56% made the appointment and 53% showed up. Why? -desire for consistency, people want to act consistently with their initial decision -strongest component being POSTDECISIONAL DISSONANCE, produced by commitment -after making a commitment to buy a car, and the salesmen returns with the bad news, the purchaser now has an even more favorable attitude towards the car than he or she did
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