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Final exam 2070 chapter 12.docx

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Psychology 2070A/B
James M Olson

Final exam 2070 chapter 12 12/17/2012 7:34:00 AM Helpful Social Behaviors DART- Disaster Assistance Response Team Helping- the behavior intended to assist another person; the recipient may or may not have requested assistance, but the helper perceives that aid is needed Prosocial behavior- any action that provides benefit to other people  Includes action that are not necessarily intended to assist others such as o Following rules in a game o Being honest o Cooperating with others 4 Types of Helping Casual Helping  Involves strangers  Relatively easy to perform  Typically unplanned and not serious, can be giving what you have or doing what you can Emergency Helping  Involves strangers  Potentially more difficult to perform  Unplanned, but is very serious  Always involves “doing what you can” Substantial Personal Helping  Involves family/friends  Potentially more difficult to perform  Usually planned, often very serious  Involves either giving what you have or doing what you can Emotional Helping  Involves family/friends  Relatively easy to perform  Usually planned, it can be serious or not  Usually involves “doing what you can” 3 Dimensions along which behaviors vary 1) planned/formal vs. spontaneous/informal  chaperoning kids at the zoo is planned  giving someone directions is spontaneous 2) Seriousness of the problem  giving someone change to make a phone call is not that serious  helping someone who is having a heart attack is serious 3) Distinction of “giving what you have” & “doing what you can”  when you donate, you “give what you have”  when you break up a fight, you “do what you can” Egoistic motivation- the outcome of helping may indeed help someone ELSE, but the helper’s TRUE motivation, is to gain some benefit for the self Altruistic motivation- helping occurs when the helpers end goal is simply to provide some benefit to another  may gain some benefit, but that is not the reason for helping Why would people ever be altruistic? EMPATHY- the ability to comprehend how another person experiences a situation  Empathy for someone in need increases the likelihood that you will help that person  More likely to feel empathy with others who are similar to us (easier to put ourselves in their shoes) - Looking from an evolutionary standpoint, the principle of inclusive fitness- refers to the idea that some social behaviors have been selected because they increase the survival of OUR genes  a father who rescues his daughter is improving the odds that some of his own genes will survive  students say they would rather help a brother (close kin) rather than a nephew or cousin (more distant kin) Another reason is because humans have evolves to behave in ways that uphold systems of cooperation- meaning helping occurs because systems of cooperation benefit everybody in a group- individuals may give help at one time, but receive help another time Empathy-Altruism Hypothesis – feelings of empathy for a person can lead to behavior that is truly aimed at helping that person  Idea that helping triggered by empathy is often altruistic Empathy-Helping relationship- real reason you help is to escape your own distress  Another version of egoistic motivation Altruism Experiment  The only condition in which low helping rates occurred was when low empathy had been induced and escape from watching suffering was easy  In both high-empathy conditions, more than 80% of the participants offered to trade places with Elaine, no matter how easy/hard it was to escape  Consistent with the empathy-altruism hypothesis  Another reason could be because suffering victims cause observers to feel sadness, even when escape is easy. People don’t like to feel sad and will often help a victim in distress in an effort to make themselves feel better o The more sadness reported by the observer, more likely that help was offered o When the observer believed that helping would not relieve their sadness, they no longer offered to help 6 Factors that influence helping behavior *focused on low-cost helping to stranger because this is the only study they can control This falls into the casual helping category, noticed as spontaneous and not very serious 1) Social Norms – culturally defined rules or guidelines about what behaviors are proper or improper  Norm of Social Responsibility states that we should help those who need help  More than 80% agreed to tell a student what time it was  73% agreed to a more intrusive request of asking change for a quarter  people were less willing to give their name (39%) or a dime (34%) o but when students tacked on an explanation for wanting the dime “my wallet has been stolen” – they doubled their chances of getting money  help is given to those who appear to have a need  Norm of Reciprocity- give back in return any favors that are done for us o Help those who have helped us in the past o One-for-one trade for the same “commodity” works ever better, those who gave their own name were 59% likely to get a stranger to reciprocate their name  Personal Norms- guidelines that have been INTERNALIZED to become expectations for oneself in particular situations o If you have internalized the norm of social responsibility, and you see it appropriate to help someone, you will most likely help them o *explains why broad social norms fail to predict helping for some people 2) Modeling Helpful Behavior- observing the actions of a helpful model increases individuals helpfulness Experiment where either a person was waiting for car assistance, or you passed someone who WAS getting car assistance and THEN you saw someone in need of car assistance  in the control condition, 35 motorists stopped to offer assistance  in the model condition, 58 stopped to offer assistance  extends to children whose parents modeled helping were more helpful than other children 3) Blaming the Victim  people are more receptive to the requests of victims who did not get themselves into trouble in the first place  willingness to lend notes from a previous class to another student who needed the notes because of a medical reason was much higher than the reason for a deliberate decision to skip that class Just world theory- hypothesized that humans NEED to believe that the world is fair and just place, where individuals receive approximately what they deserve  When observers see people suffering innocently their belief in a JUST WORLD is threatened so they deal with this stress by dealing with the victim directly When people read about a suffering victim, thoughts related to justice and injustice occur spontaneously.  If helping is not an option, people may protect their beliefs by convincing themselves either that victims did something to cause their own suffering or that the victims are “bad” people (rationalize their own inaction) o People sometimes look for reasons to blame victims so they do not have to offer help  System Justification – attempts to confirm the belief that people want to believe that the society in which they live in is fair o A desire to justify the social system can lead people both to DEROGATE victims and ENHANCE people who are successful 4) Good Mood  students who received a cookie were more likely to volunteer and to offer more of their time than the students who had not received a cookie  90% of shoppers that found an unexpected dime stopped to help an experimenter pick up papers o in contrast, only 1 out 25 in the control group would help  Good mood seems to last for about 10 minutes 5) Guilt – when WE are the cause for another persons need for help  people will not only try to rectify the victims misfortune, but they will also be more helpful to others whom they did not affect  control group – 16% stopped and helped someone pick up papers even though they were not asked to help  if the participant was made to feel guilty (responsible), 39% offered assistance  if they had been made to feel guilty beforehand, they were 42% likely to help another person who had a misfortune 6) Individual Differences in Helping: The Altruistic Personality  some people just have a helpful personality  explains why some people living in Nazi Germany were willing to risk their own lives to rescue Jews o values learned from their parents which prompted and sustained their involvement  RESCUERS differed from non-rescuers in their relationship with their parents o Rescuers consistently reported a warm and stable relationship with their parents- a secure attachment Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI) – designed to measure differences in empathy, 4 parts/subscales 1) Perspective Taking  measures the extent to which a person routinely takes the point of view of others 2)Empathetic Concern  measures the tendency of a person to experience sympathy or compassion for others 3) Personal Distress  reflects the degree to which a person experiences distress or discomfort in response to another’s extreme distress 4) Fantasy  reflects the tendency to imagine oneself in a hypothetical situation People who score high on this index are hypothesized to be more empathetic - Individual differences in altruistic personality traits predicted helping significantly when the escape from a distressed victim was easy  empathic individuals were helpful even when they did not “have” to be Measured traits at ages 24/25 were significantly correlated with the frequency with which those individuals had shared toys with other children during free play 20 years earlier  Sharing behavior at an early age was predictive of altruistic traits in young adulthood Volunteerism- unpaid helping behavior given willingly to a worthwhile cause or service organization  Falls into the category of substantial personal helping  27% of Canadians over 15 engage in some form of volunteerism, averaging 162 hours Volunteers in Canada  Those over 65 contributed the highest average numbers of hours of any age group  Women were more likely to volunteer than men  Male volunteers contributed more hours than females  Volunteer rate went up as education increased  Religiosity was associated with more volunteering  More likely to volunteer if parents had volunteered (modeling effect)  More likely to volunteer if involved in any groups (sports teams)  More likely to volunteer if they had received help in the past from volunteers 5 Distinct reasons why people might volunteer (in aids research) 2 motives are “humanitarian” or other-oriented (values & Community concern) 3 motives are primarily self-oriented or “egoistic” (understanding, personal development, esteem enhancement) 1) Values  Because I enjoy helping other people, because of my personal values, convictions, beliefs 2) Community Concern  because of my concern and worry about the gay community, to help members of the gay community 3) Understanding  to understand AIDS and what it does to people, to learn more about how to prevent aids 4) Personal Development  to challenge myself and test my skills, to meet new people and make new friends 5) Esteem enhancement  to feel better about myself, to feel needed Satisfaction with ones experience predicted tenure Relatively self-oriented, egoistic motives were associated with longer tenure  Joining because of ones values or because of concern did not predict length of service as a volunteer Other studies have shown that  People who joined because they enjoy helping other people tended to be long-serving volunteers o Humanitarian and empathic personality describe long-serving volunteers Satisfaction with ones experiences as a volunteer predicts how satisfied they were and the amount of time they donated per week Respondents who had only one principal motive for becoming a volunteer reported LESS stress and more satisfaction with their volunteer activities Emergency Helping Case of two 10 year olds murdered a 2-year old in England  Witnesses were uncertain about the seriousness of the situation Decision tree- a series of decision that must be made before a person will intervene in an emergency  5 things must happen 1) Notice the event  people may not notice because of time pressure  63% helped in a no-hurry condition, 45% helped in the intermediate-hurry condition, and 10% helped in the hurry condition 2) Interpret the Event as an Emergency  is this man sick or drunk?  Smoke experiment- when sitting alone, 75% reported a problem, when with two other people, 38% reported a problem, when two confederates were in the room, only 10% reported a problem  Even situations where the person themselves may have been in danger, bystander apathy still occurs 3) Accept Personal Responsibility for Helping  people must accept personal responsibility for intervening Seizure experiment  When another student was speaking over intercom, he showed signs of having a seizure  When group size was 2, every single student helped  When group size was 3, 85% of students helped  When group size was 4, 62% of students helped  The greater the number of perceived bystanders, the less likely a participant was to come to the victim’s aid  More people present reduced the level of personal responsibility to help the victim  BUT when a male participant was sitting with a blind participant, the participant was just as likely to respond if they had been alone Lady falling off a ladder experiment  Suddenly hear a loud crash and a scream  When students were alone, 70% offered to help  When in pairs, only 40% offered to help  When confederates were in the rooms, 10% offered to help Bystander effect- the likelihood that an individual will intervene in an emergency goes down as the number of bystanders increases  Two effects; more likely to think “she’s probably fine”, and “it’s not my responsibility anyways” Implici
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